Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Lawmaking by executive order: an analysis of a movement tending to destroy American constitutional government and to set up an executive autocracy Essay

Executive Order Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Executive Order is a lawfully mandatory order given by the acting President since he is the head of the Executive Branch ordering (FAA) Federal Administrative Agencies. An Executive Order is generally applied to control officials and federal agencies in their implementation of congressionally recognized policies or laws. However, in many occurrences they have been applied to direct agencies in ways opposing to congressional intent but not all executive orders are formed equal. Some of executive orders may deal with defense or security issues while others may be normally symbolic or ceremonial. Congressional approval is not a must requirement in order to for an Executive order to be effected because it have the alike legal burden as laws approved by Congress. Examples of executive orders include proclamations, national security directives and presidential decision directives.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Executive orders have been applied by every main executive since the reign of George Washington in 1789. Every president starting with George Washington have delivered orders which can be referred as executive orders although they did not formally indicated by name. Most of these orders were not published and were only comprehended and discussed by the agencies which were concerned. George Washington’s first executive order stated that â€Å"United   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   States was going to remain neutral in the war between Great Britain and France. In the early era of 1900s, Department in the State started numbering those orders and the numbering system we apply today when considering a specific order was not prepared until far ahead.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Those orders were retroactively numbered starting from year 1862 when President Abraham Lincoln issued the â€Å"emancipation proclamation† by executive order and by now there are more than thirteen thousands orders which have been numbered. However, there are still some orders which have not been listed because of bad record keeping but that is not a problem today since all upcoming executive orders are accessed easily. Since the decision of Supreme Court in 1952, every president has also made sure to mention which precise laws they are performing under whenever they are delivering the executive order. Numerous significant policy modifications have happened through Executive orders although the President cannot use apply executive orders to create laws, the orders can still have a very extensive consequence.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   For example President Truman delivered an executive order to incorporate the armed forces, while President Eisenhower delivered an executive order to incorporate all public schools. Another executive order #9066 was given out by President Roosevelt to affirm definite areas zones for military, but soon it was applied for the transfer of Japanese-Americans to captivity camps in the course of World War II and claimed it that he had power under his military authority. President Kennedy and President Johnson applied them to promote racial segregation in federal contracting, appointment and housing. President Bill Clinton overturned the executive order which has been issued by President Reagan about promoting use of federal funds to support abortion. However, conflict aroused during the reign of President Clinton because in his more than 300 executive orders he was not consulting the Republican Congress.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Recently, President Barrack Obama have received a lot of criticism from Republicans due to signing numerous executive orders to postpone certain there has been criticism from Republicans as President Obama has signed numerous executive orders to postponement certain sections of the â€Å"(ACA) Affordable Care Act†, although the law have not specified the authority of the president to do that. The claim of Republican is that the president is â€Å"selecting† which sections of the law to obey and which one to disobey. In all terms considered executive orders cannot interject the laws approved by Congress or the duties deputized to the Executive Branch. However, executive orders tracks against the common section of the Constitution that states â€Å"No one should have power to act disjointedly†. In contrast, Congress often provides the President substantial freedom in administering and implementing federal law. Sometimes, the Congress cannot approve precisely how to implement a law therefore this abandons the conclusion to all federal agencies concerned and the President in the power.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When congress flops to comprehend out deeply on how an act is to be implemented, the President can provide those parts in detail but in the custom of Executive Orders. The main purpose of executive orders was to strengthen the right or duty of a President to produce an order, verdict, or declaration to convey out a precise power that actually committed to his preference by the Constitution or by congress approval of a lawful statute. The President is supposed to take care that the laws be loyally executed because Executive Orders were never planned to offer a President the power to go from one place to another in Congress to enact legislation. For example if the police are aiming suspects in a certain area where gang hitting is dominant, the President can order them to go after those gang wrecks by an Executive Order because he is the chief law enforcement officer but has to adhere to the written law.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The white house and the Presidency has evolved over time, and is not the same as it was years ago. Since George Washington took over office, many presidents have taken office, with the most recent being the historic Barrack Obama who has made over nine hundred executive orders so far. It is important to put time into consideration as we seek to compare the many presidents the United States of America has had as we examine their executive orders made. In this paper, I am seeking to examine the executive office especially on presidents who faced very starkly times at the white house. Among rhetoric and administrative powers, the president possesses legislative powers which are exhibited by making of executive orders as it has been the case with many presidents.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Initially, the white house lacked guidelines to follow when setting these executive orders, until in 1952 when president Truman decided to make an executive order no. 10340 that was rendered null and invalid because it was making a law without congress, instead of extending it as should have been the case. After the ruling, previous presidents have been citing existing laws when making these orders to avoid unconstitutionality of any of these orders. This paper examines some of those orders issued, with most of them having been made during the tenure of President Roosevelt. The largest amounts of executive orders were issued between Truman’s era and Roosevelt’s era. The most executive orders have been issued during the reigns of the presidents that have been known and termed as strong. These have come under tenures when America was at war like in Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Roosevelt. Mostly, presidents have issued them in ti mes when they need to act in ways not allowed for by the constitution. There have been more conservative presidents like Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Hebert Hoover who had the belief that they were strictly limited by the constitution.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Currently, President Barrack Obama has made executive orders that have seen even congress men rally behind to impeach him as well as filing lawsuits. Last year (2013), the president passed twenty-three executive orders as part of his war against guns, and recently, in a public address he issued an executive order that saw the increment in salaries for some workers under the federal government. Currently, an executive order is seeking to fight for a debate in the enactment of a new immigration law. The current president has threatened to use these orders to pass key policies if congress fails to act imminently.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to Clancy (1996), several implications for the adoption of presidential orders have been evident, with Obama ensuring that immigrants are getting proper treatment even when deportation has been necessitated. President Bill Clinton ensured the conservation of some American rivers which were taken as American Heritage. ‘Obamacare’ has seen the current president pass over nine hundred executive orders, which he has said are all in ensuring better lives for the American people and improving life standards for American families. This has been evident especially with the pay increments for example of these initiatives to boost the lives of Americans. Gun policies have also been enacted through his executive orders, giving a sense of security back to notorious streets that have seen an increase in the number of gun owners: most of which are illegal. References American Liberty League (ALL). 1935. Lawmaking by executive order: an analysis of a movement tending to destroy American constitutional government and to set up an executive autocracy. Washington, D.C.: American Liberty League. Clancy, T. (1996). Executive orders. New York, N.Y: Berkley Books. Great Britain. 2008. Draft Legislative Reform (Health and Safety Executive) Order 2008: report, together with formal minutes and written evidence. London: TSO. McNamara, Carol, and Melanie M. Marlowe. 2012. The Obama presidency in the constitutional order: a first look. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield. Smith, V. Kerry. 1984. Environmental policy under Reagan’s executive order: the role of benefit-cost analysis. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Source document

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Rhetorical device Project on Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation Essay

The Japanese Empire bombarded Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 it was a surprise attack to the United States. This event caused the loss of many innocent people as well as material destruction to the country. Franklin D. Roosevelt was the president during that time, his duty was to address both, the nation and the Congress to inform them about what had happened he did this through his speech â€Å"Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation†. The speech was extremely important, not only because of how delicate was the subject, but also because he had the challenge to inform two very different audiences about the occurred. His first audience was Congress which was important because in the end they would determine whether or not to go to war. Also the nation would listen to this speech, while Congress got to see and hear him during the speech Americans would only hear the speech through radio, which made this an even harder task to accomplish. However, Franklin D. Roosevelt did a truly amazing job addressing both the nation and Congress because he did not focus on only one audience. He clearly addresses both audiences when he says, â€Å"I believe that I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people†¦Ã¢â‚¬  he takes both opinions into consideration. By doing this Roosevelt gives equal importance to the nation and to Congress, which helps him get a positive response from both audiences. This shows that he successfully informed the nation and Congress about the war and both audiences understood. He accomplished two things at once because by addressing both audiences in one speech he shows that he had them both in mind. He did not include the kind of language that the nation would not understand just because he was talking to congress. Also he did not deliver the speech on a manner that would not be appropriate for Congress he used just the right language that would be understood by both audiences. Another important aspect of this speech that made it so successful is the way that he delivered the speech. He knew that the nation would be listening to the speech and he obviously knew that Congress would be present when he would be delivering the speech. Therefore he had to use a tone that would accomplish the purpose of the speech. This had two purposes first to inform his audience about the occurred and second and most important to keep the  nation calmed and assure them safety. He does this when he informs the audience that, â€Å"the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked†¦Ã¢â‚¬  although this was something very shocking he managed to stay calmed and transmit that to others. He also assures safety, â€Å"I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense†¦Ã¢â‚¬  which gives the nation some kind of tranquility knowing that things are being taken care of. Roosevelt’s tone was very calm yet very powerful as it is shown in Fig. 1, when he is presenting his speech to Congress and the nation. As a result of Roosevelt’s capability to address two audiences at once and to deliver the speech with an appropriate and effective tone the speech was very successful. He successfully informed the audience about what happened without causing confusing in neither of them. He used the appropriate language to address both the Congress and the nation. Roosevelt was also aware that his speech would be presented to the audience in two forms, via radio for the nation and in person to the Congress. This played a big role in how he delivered the speech but he managed it very well and used a tone that projected confidence in providing safety for the nation and was powerful enough to ensure that things would be taken care of. Roosevelt delivered this speech very well and the outcome was good.

Monday, July 29, 2019

TQM assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

TQM assignment - Essay Example 2(D) (ii) measuring satisfaction of internal customer. A questionnaire or forming focus groups (employees meet and the are asked question) can be used to evaluate the satisfaction. Typical question is Are you satisfied working for this hotel If not, state the reason and necessary changes 2(D) (iii) Some of the problems that will be encountered when evaluating and analyzing the results are: For the first question (How can we serve you better)Different customers will give different views about the hotel improvement methods. The list of the variables may be too long. For example one customer can talk about improving the time required to serve client, while another may comment about improving quality. The hotel management may be faced by numerous solutions and may not have capacity and capability of fulfilling each client wants. Question 2 Are you satisfied working for this hotel If not, state the reason and necessary changes Many internal customers may give the solution of increasing wages and salary and leave out vital issues like harsh management due to fear of victimization. Question 3 the funnel rules The four funnel rules are Rule 1 'leave the funnel fixed, aim at the target and make no adjustment' Rule2 'at drop k (k=1, 2, 3---, the marble will come to rest at point zk which is measured from target' that is zk is the error at drop k, move funnel to a distance -zk. Rule 3 'set the funnel at each drop right over the spot zk, which is measured from target 'no memory Rule 4 'set the funnel at each drop right over the spot (zk) where it last came ' (Source (Thomas, P. 2008. Tampering effects and diagnosis. Quality publishing.[online]. Available at...Hotels such as Hilton spend millions in advertising so as to attract and retain customers. The internal customers; refers to a set of services directed towards the workers working in the hotel. These include the front office personnel, the management of the hotel, different department and vendors and consultant. The internal customer is usually neglected in the big hotels and this has ripple negative effects on the external customer. Such a question will help the managerial team determine the level of customer satisfaction as well as provide an answer to the improvement question. Question should gear towards, services quality, speed and other aspects. Different customers will give different views about the hotel improvement methods. The list of the variables may be too long. For example one customer can talk about improving the time required to serve client, while another may comment about improving quality. The hotel management may be faced by numerous solutions and may not have capacity and capability of fulfilling each client wants. (This is volition of rule number 4) which stipulates that "train the trainer" is unacceptable as this progresses the error. The error increases as the levels of training increases. Rule number 4 assumes 'no memory'.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Kuwaits democratic development Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Kuwaits democratic development - Research Paper Example This essay declares that in developing the context of democracy, the essential approaches for consideration with relation to the democratic development include the procession of development of civil life from the kin-based origins or the contractual and interest-based styles of leadership . The associations of the ancient worlds are much similar to those of today. In the pursuit of liberation and establishment of civil life, the aspects of cultural origin structure the continuity of rule within the political systems. The rule on interest-based conceptions entails the selection of a leader based on his interest for the subjects. Democracy and development remain the driving forces of the ‘new world order.’ The initial opportunity for engaging in Kuwait was the call to liberate Kuwait from the invasion by the Iraqi forces. This paper makes a conclusion that the development of Kuwait towards democracy has a rich history of turbulent times. The aspect of the government structure of the city-state constitutes vastly in the limitation towards achieving complete democratic establishments . Politics and individual interest in the recourses of the oil-rich country continue to increment the gap towards the development of the city-state into adopting democracy in all its constitutions. Further, the factors of religious beliefs and culture also limit the establishment and achievement of democratic development of Kuwait. These factors result in the retarding growth of Kuwait towards the establishment of democratic development.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

How the feminist movement has influenced female artists working with Essay

How the feminist movement has influenced female artists working with technology - Essay Example This paper presents how feminist movement has influenced female artists working with technology. It also presents a brief overview of what feminism used to look like in art, in addition to, the historical sense of the feminist movement in terms of art. Additionally, it presents what the feminist movement looks like today for female artists, especially, for those working with technology, such as, female video game designers, engineers or computer specialists. Finally, this paper presents a conclusion of the findings and analysis of literature on the subject of feminist movements. The main question that comes to the mind of many when the feminist movement is raised is what feminist art stands for. Arts analysts and historical researchers have, ever since, argued over the subject of feminist art. They try to establish whether it was a period in the history of art, a lobby group or a complete makeover of how things should be carried out on the subject of female contributions. According to Motta, Flesher, Eschle and Laurence (2012), a number of researchers have judged feminist movements against surrealism. In this regard, many people consider feminist art not as an art technique, but to a certain extent, a process of creating gender sensitive art or integrate women in art galleries and exhibitions. Feminist art has spurred debate also on the subject of post-modernism. Feminist art entails the creation of value and meaning in art while integrating women in the modern forms of art techniques (Redfern and Aune 7). According to Motta et al. (2012), feminist art also provoked debate on whether the historical western art was a global representation of art regardless of men dominating in most spheres. It is therefore, possible to establish that feminist art entails artists working with the thoughts of gender, personality and outward appearance. Feminist art entails the use of performance art, such as, videos and

Statement of purpose to applying to university Personal

Of purpose to applying to university - Personal Statement Example recognizes that aside from this main personal objective, there is a firm desire to be an instrumental contributor to the development of my native country through this field of study. It was acknowledged that most of the students who reportedly graduated in the last decades focused on literary programs where professional careers in education and providing instructional approach through teaching have been appropriately satiated and addressed. Likewise, as affirmed from the narration of our prophet Mohammed, peace is upon him, when he said that we must look for knowledge everywhere. As such, this advice is put into application through fervent desire for traveling across countries for both leisure and educational pursuit. I believe that through being immersed in different cultures, traditions and languages, I would be able to personally experience and learn about people, arts, communication patterns, and current global trends. In addition, I contend that by travelling, it would provide me with the perfect opportunity to practice speaking and communicating through English, as my second language. Thus, I would like to develop greater proficiency in English through being enrolled in the university in the United States. passion to delve into theories and concepts that integrate courses in biology, as well as in information technology. I recognize that contemporary organizations have applied advanced discoveries in the field of biology, or the study of life; as well as in vast technological advancements in information and the use of computers, the internet, as well as other technical fields. In addition, since graduates from this particular field are still rare in Saudi Arabia, I plan to share the fruits of the knowledge to be gained from the program to my country through helping in its growth and development within this discipline. I am most grateful for the government for according me with a scholarship to enable me to pursue higher education in the United States. As

Friday, July 26, 2019

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Entrepreneurship and Innovation - Essay Example Innovation - â€Å"a process by which opportunities are identified and exploited and it requires the commitment of enterprising people† (Lowe and Marriott 2006: 32). Entrepreneurship - â€Å"the pursuit of opportunity without regard to resources currently controlled† (Lowe and Marriott 2006: 49). Enterprise - â€Å"the ability to handle uncertainty and respond positively to change, to create and implement new ideas and new ways of doing things, to make reasonable risk/reward assessments and act upon them in a variety of contexts, both personal and work† (Lowe and Marriott 2006: 104). Public Sphere - the space of culture and society in which activity affects across familial and community lines, creating action that affects the whole rather than the individual. 2. Introduction With the recent economic crisis and the nature of global environmental issues rising to the surface, and with the addition of so many social problems emerging in a world that is becoming ever more globally centralized, entrepreneurial efforts through innovative solutions provide a resource to both support the issues that represent deep needs for solutions, as well create a financial opportunity for those who have concepts to increase an aspect of the health of the world. Opportunities that arise through innovations that solve problems create jobs, support human life, and advance civilization. In addition, those types of innovations that are created with a socially responsible solution in mind provide for a more enlightened advancement of civilization, while supporting the true needs of humanity over simply just the financial needs. Entrepreneurial efforts, at their basic level, are the needs that someone has to build and grow a business that provides financial compensation for their efforts. Money is not always the driving force, neither is the concept of being an owner, but those two aspects will always be a part of being a entrepreneur. There are times when it is the product, the innovation that drives a person to enter into an entrepreneurial phase, thus the need to achieve and create supersedes the need for profit. In many of the more altruistic innovations that have come on the market, the need to service a socially responsible demand has been the driving force behind the product. This type of entrepreneurship has the consequence, more often, of creating a high level of product when the business end of the process is well balanced In the end, it is the business end of a company that will support its success, not the value of the product. The product could be something that will cure world hunger, but if no one is developing it, capitalizing it, and promoting it into the hands of the right people, the idea will die without fixing the problems that it had been designed to address. It is great if a person develops the cure for cancer, but if it is done in a basement lab and no one finds out about it - if it is never produced, packaged, and sold - it will be lost. Innovation must come with proper business sense or it will not enter into the conscious of culture. Without proper capitalization, good decision making skills, and proper connections, an idea will die before it ever reaches the market. 3. Social Problems and Innovative Solutions Bornsteins and Davis

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Relationship between Labor Market and Education Essay

Relationship between Labor Market and Education - Essay Example From the above table it is evident that majority of full time workers are those with PhD, masters, bachelors degree and 2 year program. Of those interviewed those with masters' degree and work full time amount to 66.2% while only 43% with high school diploma are working full time. In contrast to this we check the percentage of those that are unemployed; from the table only 5.2% with PhD are unemployed compared to 11.7% of those who have attained high school diploma. There it is evident that employment status will depend on education attainment. Now due to the fact that the T critical value is less than the T calculated value we reject the null hypothesis that the two means are equal therefore we conclude that mean percentage of those employed and have PhD is greater than the mean value of those employed and have attained high school diploma. In the labor market people who have higher educational attainment are paid more than others, for example PhD holders will be paid higher wage rates than bachelors degree holders, in this case we analyze education level and lowest wage willing to accept, the following table summarizes the results: The above table summarizes the percentage of those who are willing to paid 4.35 to 9 according to their education attainment; it is evident that only 1% of PhD holders are willing to be paid 6 dollars while 7.8% of GED holders are willing to be paid 6 dollars. ... Variance 1 = (2.22)2 Variance 2 = (2.47) 2 N1 =2535 N2 = 2535 Tcal = 100.2828 T critical at 95% level of test = 1.9599 Now due to the fact that the T critical value is less than the T calculated value we reject the null hypothesis that the two means are equal therefore we conclude that mean percentage of those employed and have PhD is greater than the mean value of those employed and have attained high school diploma. Education and lowest wage willing to accept: In the labor market people who have higher educational attainment are paid more than others, for example PhD holders will be paid higher wage rates than bachelors degree holders, in this case we analyze education level and lowest wage willing to accept, the following table summarizes the results: High school diploma GED 2-year program Bachelors Degree Masters Degree PhD... 4.35 0.1 0 0.2 0 0 0 4.5 0.4 0.9 0.3 0.1 0 0 4.75 0.2 0.9 0.1 0 0 0 wage 5 5.7 11 3.2 0.9 0.3 1 6 4.4 7.8 3 1 0 1 7 4.3 6 3 1.3 0.8 0 8 2.7 6.3 3.1 2.4 1.8 0 9 1 4.1 1.6 0.5 0.8 0 The above table summarizes the percentage of those who are willing to paid 4.35 to 9 according to their education attainment; it is evident that only 1% of PhD holders are willing to be paid 6 dollars while 7.8% of GED holders are willing to be paid 6 dollars. For this reason therefore it is evident that the cost of labor depends in education attainment. Hypothesis: More high school diploma individuals are willing to be paid 5 dollars than Masters Degree holders Null hypothesis: H0: a = b Alternative hypothesis: Ha: a b Where a high school diploma individuals are willing to be paid 5 and b is masters individual willing to be paid 5 dollars therefore a = 5.7and b = 0.3 Tcal = 2.34057 T critical at 95% level of test =

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Forecasts of Demand Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Forecasts of Demand - Assignment Example So, how do companies prepare for growth while still acknowledging that this forecast might not materialise? How do these estimates, which are a rough estimate of the actual demand or sometimes the mirror image of the market conditions, affect human resource, capacity, and the supply-chain management? How does this forecast influence the flexibility of these three important factors in manufacturing whether weekly, monthly or annually? The paper discusses the role of Operations Management, its framework and concepts while developing an appreciation for the operational processes, techniques, planning, and control systems. It also demonstrates the application of appropriate measures and the techniques for planning and production control. It is further classified under the three items for discussion for precision and clarity. According to the U.S. Census Bureau and the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the residential statistics for June 2013 showed that privately-owned housing units were at a seasonally adjusted annual rate of 911,000. This was 7.5% below the May rate of 985,000 but stood at 16.1% above the June 2012 estimate of 78500. The single-family authorisations were at 624,000, which was a 1.2 percent increase from the 620,000 in May. The industry is a replica of other organisations in terms of the forecasts from previous years to current times, and from current years to the future. In Ontario Canada, the houses were trending at 184,514 units in June compared to 184,087 in May. This is according to statistics from the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC). According to Mathieu Laberge, the Deputy Chief Economist at CMHC, they use this trend to measure as a complement to the monthly SAAR of housing to account for considerable swings in monthly estimates and obtain a more comple te picture of the state of the housing market. In some situations, however, Mathieu acknowledges that the data or projections

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Technology Evaluation Same time, Same place Essay

Technology Evaluation Same time, Same place - Essay Example This is because the information is present in people’s profiles and also it is easier to ask the chat friends to find the information you need. This technology reduces efforts of working together where you have to organize meetings and spend a lot of time arguing and in conflict resolution, hence the amount of time spent working on tasks is reduced. In the political dimensions, the technology helps reach relevant people needed for achievement of the performance goals. The technology can reach managers due to many people being connected in the chat and this enables sharing of ideas, challenges, saves time and costs hence meeting the expectations and goals of the job description and valuing workers whom much information is shared with (Chickowski, 2009). The Internet Relay Chat helps the team members in the organization to complete tasks quickly because they reduce time for paper work and searching customers and suppliers, this therefore improves productivity. Due to the chat containing personal information of different individuals, team members understand each other well in terms of their strengths and weaknesses hence effective working relationship among those team members. Technologically, the Internet Relay Chat enables individuals to use their personal computers and even their mobile phones to chat. This therefore means that connectivity with individuals in remote parts is enabled due to the use of mobile phones and personal computers. The technology of the internet chat enables integration with applications in the intranet of the individuals using the technology hence allows its wider

Monday, July 22, 2019

Poetic Reflections on Mortality and Ephemerality Essay Example for Free

Poetic Reflections on Mortality and Ephemerality Essay Have you ever hypothetically pondered the details of your own fatality? Everyone covets a bit of certainty that not many realities allow, but mortality -while a glum concept- is a definite fate we will all ultimately encounter in our respective lifetimes. â€Å"Nothing is more predictable than death. Each of us will die without any need to take adventuresome risks. † (Kelly, 1986). This is likely the reason prolific poets Emily Dickinson and Robert Frost have created quite similar themed poems using dissimilar imaginative slants in which they optimistically convey the topic of human transience. Death is a disheartening, tragic matter that not very many individuals readily wish to discuss. Because ephemerality is, however, an extremely ordinary notion to countless expressive artists, it is vital to notice the literary elements these renowned authors applied which set such works apart from less potent pieces. The symbolism, tone, assonance, rhythm, and other literary techniques behind the elegies â€Å"Nothing Gold Can Stay† (Frost, 1969) and â€Å"Because I could not stop for Death† (Dickinson, 1893) fervently beg for further exploration. No matter which approach authors apply to such deviations, one truth remains; the amount of life contained in the works by Frost and Dickinson is somewhat ironic to say the least. If you envision the scenery described in literary pieces you read as if you are a participating, fictional character, you exceptionally possess â€Å"The human power that shapes artistic expression † (Clugston, 2010 a). Put in simpler terms, you clearly have a vivid imagination! Prodigious writers can and will effortlessly incorporate such imagery into their work by imploring the implicit values of society and culture(s). Nothing Gold Can Stay† by Robert Frost (1969) is unquestionably far from the exception as he connects the way leaves grow, change, and die to our eventual demise with ease. Frost wrote, â€Å"Natures first green is gold, Her hardest hue to hold. † (Frost, 1969). With the introduction of this allusive writing technique, he develops a clear yet slightly ambiguous mental picture for his readers to envisage. Of course, we know nature is not a person nor does have hands in which it could literally grasp a color. Hence, the meaning of Robert’s words is symbolic and figurative. Sure, Mr. Frost could very well have written something resembling â€Å"Beings age like leaves change colors. † Instead, this brilliant poet was aware of the fact that generating embodiment versus the aforementioned simile delivers the most enticing reading experience to the audience. In â€Å"Because I could not stop for Death† (Dickinson, 1893), the author similarly dishes out a full serving of powerful metaphors making this another comparable aspect to personification found in Frosts’ poem. At the very beginning, Emily Dickinson refers to unescapable, human cessation as a chivalrous gentleman when she states, â€Å"Because I could not stop for Death, He kindly stopped for me;† (Dickinson, 1893). The author is actually being extremely facetious as a deliberate, artistic maneuver in order to give life to the darkest of subjects. She selects to represent passing away in a more graceful process. It is a steady flowing motif continuing throughout the body of this work to form a concise, elucidating theme. From centuries beyond the grave, the narrator describes the peaceful process of her passing, in which Death is personified and escorts her in his carriage. During the leisurely ride, she passes many ordinary sights: a school house, fieldsbut finally realizes that the ride will last for all eternity. † (Chen Aull, 1993). Dickinson’s apparent intention in this poem is depiction via exemplification. Her language is a quintessential representation of an all egory with more thought provocation than verity. Again, readers should prepare themselves to observe a nonliteral or rhetorical scenario and focus on ascertaining the seriousness hidden behind a much more abstract meaning. Symbolism is another conceptualized, literary element featured in both stories despite being more prevalent in â€Å"Nothing Gold Can Stay† (Frost, 1969). Frost used the typical colors of nature (green and gold) imply symbols of spring, that progress as the remaining cycles of nature seasonally occur. Furthermore, he hints at a deeper meaning behind death— a period of transformational change. In order to appreciate this impression, â€Å"Recall Socratess argument: ‘the state of death is one of two things: either the dead man wholly ceases to be and loses all consciousness or, as we are told, it is change and a migration of the soul to another place’. † (Deppman, 2000). He picked the color gold to symbolize the fragility and eventual insignificance of even our most valuable physical and emotional possessions. By his statement, â€Å"Then leaf subsides to leaf, So, Eden sank to grief. † (Frost, 1969), Frost selects to demonstrate the sorrow felt after loss of life as well as depicting an analogous allusion to the biblical Creation story. Whereas in â€Å"Because I could not stop for Death† (1893), Emily Dickinson poses a more unconventional attitude toward her own demise. In lines five through eight, she writes, â€Å"We slowly drove, he knew no haste, And I had put away, My labor, and my leisure too, For his civility. † (Dickinson, 1893). When the speaker refers to ‘his’ â€Å"kindness† and â€Å"civility†, she is articulating death as a slow, patient, and compassionate. â€Å"She progresses from childhood, maturity (the gazing grain is ripe) and the setting (dying) sun to her grave. The children are presented as active in their leisure (strove). The images of children and grain suggest futurity, that is, they have a future; they also depict the progress of human life. † (Unknown Author, 2009). Thus, the carriage ride actually symbolizes the act of abandoning her life and the memories it contained. She humbly revers death as the calm, quiet finally of incarnation. Dickinson even insinuated the harsh reality of visiting of her own grave when she wrote, â€Å"We paused before a house that seemed, A swelling of the ground; The roof was scarcely visible, The cornice but a mound. (Dickinson, 1893). Aging to the point of loss of life does remain the central theme inside both poems, but representations are a tad more distinct in Frosts’ than in Dickinson’s symbolic approach. Have you ever witnessed one’s mood shift completely? Authors generally try to maintain the same theme throughout one work. It is equally as important to discern the how t he author’s tones contribute to the clarity of each piece. Sometimes, whether done by the author accidentally or with intent, we observe a change in the mood(s) of a motif. While Emily Dickinson and Robert Frost mutually demonstrate the qualities of human temporariness, their tones are also diverse. By writing, â€Å"Nothing Gold Can Stay† (Frost, 1969), the permanent state of leaving this world is denoted in a matter of fact way. Frost does not truly elude to his personal outlook on an afterlife, but focuses more on the cycle of life itself. Dickinson not only utilizes the same facet, but also takes it a step further when she states, â€Å"Since then tis centuries, and yet each, Feels shorter than the day I first surmised the horses heads, Were toward eternity. (Dickinson, 1893). She began her countenance with succinct tenor that later becomes a bit clouded. Dickinson’s audience receives a definite resolve rather than experiencing the need to imply ideals she holds about her faith. Each of these poems is incredibly whimsical, but Frost concisely manipulates the setting of nature giving his work the currency of application to any period i n time. Sound patterns are another inspired technique both composers have exposed us to in the intricacy of their work. We automatically follow the rhythm these superb authors display. For instance, Frost uses alliteration in â€Å"Nothing Gold Can Stay† when he writes, â€Å"So dawn goes down to day. † (Frost, 1969). The repetition of words that begin with a â€Å"d† is a strategy meant to make the thought stronger and more emphatic for readers. His rhyme scheme is comprised of modest, consonant couplets (non-alternating). Dickinson actually used the complete opposite effect. In her poem â€Å"Because I could not stop for Death† (Dickinson, 1893), she integrated the repetition of vowel sounds by presenting an alternating pattern of words known as assonance. Again, an example is unmistakable in the lines, â€Å"We slowly drove, he knew no haste, And I had put away, My labor, and my leisure too, For his civility. † (Dickinson, 1893) and more specifically the poetic harmony of the words â€Å"away† and â€Å"civility. † With the rhythm in this poem, there is rhyme, but it has a much greater reliance on pronunciation. She may have started a trend in literature as, â€Å"Assonance is frequently substituted for end rhymes in modern poetry. † (Clugston, 2010 b). The authoring style Frost exercised was extra simplistic, yet multidimensional as well. Is it not an astounding conception to think of the distinguished artistry that must have went into two ostensibly austere compositions about the matching theme of impermanence? The fact that we cannot artlessly disregard the scholarly adeptness and literate gifts of Dickinson and Frost is surpasses distinction. Even more significant than the expiry themes both versifiers applied is the presence of underlying secondary themes. Frost hints life as being â€Å"golden,† leading one to surmise he is ‘saying’ to â€Å"Carpe Diem† or â€Å"Enjoy the day. (Online Etymology Dictionary, 2010). Therein, he selects to show life has precious intrinsic worth. Even though there are purity and a biblical reference in Frost’s â€Å"Nothing Gold Can Stay† (1969), his nature theme additionally highlights environmental/scientific characteristics. Syntax expended by Dickinson in â€Å"Because I could not stop for death† (Dickinson, 1893), in fact, alludes to a compassion and sympathy being felt for the persona. A prime example is her statement, â€Å"The carriage held but just ourselves, And Immortality. † (Dickinson, 1893). If the dramatic concentration of this author was to deliver a graceful reflection on her evolution, she was unequivocally efficacious. Some find it helpful to get an outsider’s opinion of the depressing conversational topic of human immortality. While our passing lingers as a fully common subject for individuals to contemplate spiritual principles, authors have written pieces that include a plethora of other beneficial notions worth uncovering. â€Å"Because I could not stop for Death† (Dickinson, 1893) is exquisitely illustrated by Emily Dickinson and venerated as an allegoric requiem with assonance that produced solid imagery. Likewise, Robert Frost impeccably regulated â€Å"Nothing Gold Can Stay† (Frost, 1969) to communicate symbolism with a classic form of consonance that is painless to identify. Both literature icons fine-tuned those components with figures of speech, personification, and tone and themes, rhyme schemes, and other literary techniques all requiring immense, prior critical thought in â€Å"Nothing Gold Can Stay† (Frost, 1969) and â€Å"Because I Could Not Stop for Death† (Dickinson, 1893). They expel an aura of chirpiness that renders as a refreshing and unique outlook encompassed in positivity. These poetic mavens wanted their audience(s) to derive a deeper message about making the most of our lives. Two notorious, inspirational pieces of literature are calling upon us to take some risks and make an impression before we take our last breathe.

Religious Experience is Nothing but Fantasy Essay Example for Free

Religious Experience is Nothing but Fantasy Essay The above criticism to religious belief was proposed by Sigmund Freud; who thought that the origin of relig exp (religious experience) is rooted in the unconscious and that they are a product of eschewed psychosexual development. Freud rejected any appeal to the supernatural to explain these occurrences as our mind regularly deludes itself, pointing to dreams as an obvious example. The materialistic approach to explaining relig exp has led scientists to pinpoint specific physical causes of this phenomena; St Paul of Tarsus is thought to have possessed a form of epilepsy. In this case, Pauls relig exp would be a fantasy but perceived as real experience. A theistic challenge to materialism is that God and organic explanations of religious phenomena. In this way our brains may be wired up to experience God; materialism does not necessarily deem all relig exp fantasy. But how does one explain those who do not experience religious phenomena? Are some people born with Gods calling card? This in my mind is where atheists and theists will never agree; theists will say God only chooses some to be his messengers and atheists will say that our genetics and upbringing predispose some of us to superstition. In this way we cannot know whether each and every religious experience is fantasy; a conclusion reached by Bertrand Russell who reasoned that the fundamental truth that we cannot get inside someone elses head and verify the experience deems this argument irresolvable. William James set out specific criteria for a religious experience. For example, the experience must be transient i.e it is temporary and therefore cannot be sustained. This conveniently prevents science from examining the psychological causes of the experience; further evidence that this argument is irresolvable. James based in conclusions in part on Pragmatism; the doctrine that truth is the acceptable conclusion for whomever concerned; in this sense, religious experiences are very much true to the believer. This would be seconded by Ludwig Wittgenstein who indentified religion as a closed language game; proposing that the experiences are fantasy is not an accepted move and is only know to the outside observer. Ergo, to say religious experiences are fantasy excludes the one accepted explanation upon which religion is based; God did it. The term fantasy is vague; does this indicate a belief that we want to be true and know is false or rather a true deception ourselves. The former seems plausible in the case of Mass Hysteria e.g The Toronto Blessing, where our desire to fit in overtakes our desire to be right; what psychologists call Normative Social Influence. As James pointed out, these psychological explanations do not necessarily reject God. However, they do give us no reason to believe in him via Occams razor (believe in the most simple of the explanations) and thus reckon religious experiences as fantasy. This brings to mind Anthony Flews Death by 1000 qualifications; constantly changing the goalposts for the definition of God so that the eventual result is an idea that possesses no verifiable or falsifiable claim. Thus God cannot be counted in or out of existence, or even on the fence. Kant objected to the term religious experience; calling it a contradiction. How can we experience that which is fundamentally beyond our sensory capacity? We experience people and trees and the world around us because it is finite; as are we. We can level the challenge that we experience the universe, which is infinite, but that we experience finite sections of the infinite set. Similarly we can count numbers but not count to the be it and end all of real of the numbers. God we can experience in short, transient bursts but cannot experience the sum of him; this is not logically impossible. Kants reasoning is not the reason to reject religious experience as fantasy; as with religion there can only be one wholly true explanation of religious phenomena. Only one religion can be wholly true as they make incompatible claims; and so we must dismiss most religious experiences as fantasy. And if we reject most religious experiences, then those remaining must be of the same psychological nature so they too can be dismissed as fantasy. Jamess pluralism is merely another get out clause; another death by 1000 qual which offers no explanation to how faiths are linked, and is infinitely less simple than materialism. In conclusion, not every criticism levelled against religious experience is sound. However, only one is sufficient; that because we can track the experience of God to psycho/physiological phenomena, there is no reason left to believe in God even though the two are not mutually exclusive. Since the debate cannot be resolved ala Russell, we must assume the answer is not the theistic one.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Effect of Computer on Design Creativity

Effect of Computer on Design Creativity Are computers taking away the creativity in design? Abstract Computers are an integral part of todays design process. They, computers represent a time and cost saving device that aids designs in rendering shapes and looking at a broader parameter of possibilities than would be possible otherwise. In looking at design, one must be aware that it represents a part of a business process that has competitive considerations. The foregoing includes costs, materials, innovation, uniqueness, distinction, functionality, and utility in gathering clients and well as customers. The contribution of computers in this highly charged environment has helped to drive down costs, while developing innovation as well as approaches to creativity. As such, designers have been able to expand their creativity through the ability of the computer to permit them to look at more possibilities in their search to arrive at solutions that fit within the preceding parameters. As software programs advance on a technological basis, newer and more powerful programs are increasingly taking on more roles in the design process. This represents the foundation of this examination in that generative design has captured a new part of the preceding in that software can generate designs based upon input parameters. Is the preceding innovative? The answer would have to be a yes. Does the foregoing aid in the business aspects in terms of broadening the range of potential possibilities, and helping to keep costs low? Again, yes is the answer. So, computers do have their place in increasing the efficiency and range of design outputs. The question is, has their role starting to become so large that they, computers are taking over the design function, relegating the designer to a computer operator? Chapter 1 Introduction In equating the question as to whether computers are taking away creativity in design, an exploration into the key words of the examination is seemingly in order. The Houghton Mifflin (2007) dictionary defines generative as â€Å"Having the ability to originate, produce, or procreate†. Design, represents the process whereby one creates, fashions, executes and or constructs according to a plan (Merriam Webster (2007). The design process, depending upon the application that is being utilised, represents trial and error in working through the steps to the final design that fits the parameters of the project (Brown, 2001, p. 2). In order to focus in on the context, design as it relates to architecture, construction and new products such as vehicles, and machines shall represent the core of the examination as represented by the question as opposed to the design of clothing, packaging, and related forms whereby the product is designed based upon primarily internal considerations as opposed to client, and or competitive, and market considerations. As brought forth by McDonagh et al (2004, p. 13): â€Å"As established products have become more similar in technology, functionality, price and quality, companies have turned to design to differentiate their offerings through human-centred innovation and to create stronger emotional connections with their customers. More companies have followed the example of Apple, Braun and Philips, recognising design as a strategic function in their business-not one subservient to marketing, manufacturing or engineering† The design process has increasingly become more competitive in terms of differentiating products, and appealing to clients and customers, as â€Å"†¦companies seek competitive advantage through more integrated offerings, with differentiation through all points of customer contact that express their brand† (McDonagh et al, 2004, p. 13). Thus, design is a critical function most businesses, taking differing forms, thus the election to restrict this examination to the aforementioned categories. Rittel and Weber (1973, p. 158) tell us that design problems are more than just complex, they, design problems, represent what they term as â€Å"wicked problems†. Moran and Carroll (1996, p. 4) in elaborating on the aforementioned advise that design problems â€Å"†¦be stated per se or solved in the sense of definitive answers, because the criteria for evaluating goals and outcomes are innumerable, subjective, and conflicting†. They add that (Moran and Carroll, 1996, p. 4): â€Å"Any solution will generate waves of consequences that interact among themselves and with other problems, changing the problem situation in irreversible and unknown ways. Thus, each wicked problem is merely a symptom of further wicked problems; their solutions cannot even be finally evaluated.† In understanding the nuances as well as ramifications of design, it is necessary to note that design is a process that it usually proceeds under conditions that are represented by a high degree of uncertainty, whereby answers to critical facets cannot be had (Moran and Carroll, 1996, p. 4). The design process also is constrained by real world considerations as represented by time, and budgets, thus the boundaries of the process, design, are not unlimited. Thus, in view of constraints, the design process needs both ingenuity as well as creativity. As brought forth by Rittel and Weber (1973, p. 158), the complexity of design problems make design projects too large for on individual to handle as multiple â€Å"†¦technical disciplines are required, as well as management discipline, in addition to creative and integrative skills† (Moran and Carroll, 1996, p. 5). Evidence supporting the technical difficulties involved in the design process is presented by Brown (1998, pp. 45-46), who states the failure rate for new buildings of all types before construction starts is around 10%. For new products, such as electronics and related categories, the failure rate as a result of design is generally within Browns (1998, pp. 45-46) range, however there are exceptions, such as the 33% failure rate that Microsofts new Xbox 360 is experiencing (DailyTech, 2007). Pressures to get it right represent a critical business decision, whether there is a client involved, or if the design process represents an internal process for the companys own products. Thus, time, cost, simplicity, and failure rate minimisation are critical business concerns that the designer must operate within. Thus, the design function, while being creativity, is also subject to the foregoing pragmatic considerations. Generative design software represents the processes whereby new designs can be automatically produced at the push of a button (Mass Customization Open Innovation News, 2006). The preceding represents computer software taking various design specifications and formulating them into a final design matrix based upon the input variables within the software program (Mass Customization Open Innovation News, 2006). The basic forms, patterns and or objects is modified automatically by an algorithm, thus permitting faster trail and error processes (Mass Customization Open Innovation News, 2006). The process of automatic design generation permits thousands of differing designs to be produced, as well as permitting new ones, as the design process is not restricted to the designers imagination (Mass Customization Open Innovation News, 2006). It, generative design is â€Å"†¦ the power or function of generating, originating, producing, or reproducing† (Merriam Webster, 2007). The designing of architecture, and products represent processes that are three-dimensional (Beilharz, 2004). Parameters as represented by colour, texture, utility design input constraints, space, regulations, gravity, materials, heat (in the case of certain products) and costs are the boundaries to the structure as well (Beilharz, 2004). The application of generative systems to design affects the design process phases and â€Å"†¦ integrates the macrocosmic and microcosmic relations of the design system†. For the purpose of clarification, macrocosmic represents â€Å"and large or complex system or structure made up of similar smaller systems or structures †¦Ã¢â‚¬  (, 2007), whereas microcosmic is defined as â€Å" a little world †¦ a community or other unity that is an epitome of a larger unity† (Merriam Webster, 2007). This examination shall look at whether or not computers are taking away creativity in design by focusing on generative design, and how it affects the designer. In delving into the preceding, a number of important areas shall be examined in order to understand the design process, what it entails, along with what creativity is and how it is utilised. Chapter 2 -The Design Process In designing a product, building, vehicle or machine the principle output as represented by the design process is its specification as represented by either an annotated CAD rendering and or a schematic (Moran and Carroll, 1996, p. 324). The design rationale represents the why the design is done in the manner that it is, with the foregoing including various types of information (Moran and Carroll, 1996, p. 324). Fry (1999, p. 22) takes a wider view of design, stating that â€Å"†¦ it is one of the most powerful ways to understand how a world is prefigured, made and acts†. Mitchell (1990, pp. 67-71) explains the design process as one that depending upon the context, takes on differing forms. He explains that the most usual computational variations represent transformations, which he terms as unary, as well as binary operations of shapes as represented in either two dimensional drawings, and or three dimensional geographic models (Mitchell, 1990, pp. 68-69). Mitchell (1993, p. 25) states that there are areas in computer-aided design that fail to support creativity, citing shape emergence as an example. Mitchell (1993, p. 25) argues that: â€Å"that design intentions evolve through the course of a creative design process, that these intentions determine how emergent shapes in drawings will be recognized, interpreted, and reinterpreted, and that interpretation (and reinterpretation) of emergent shapes plays a crucial role in directing design explorations. Traditional computer-aided design systems do not effectively support creative design because they provide only very limited and inflexible ways of interpreting shapes.† In elaborating on the foregoing Mitchell (1993, p. 25) adds â€Å"†¦Computer-aided design systems can, however, be developed on an alternative foundation that provides the necessary flexibility†. Jun and Kim (2003) have a differing opinion of the preceding. They argue that shape semantics in CAD systems offer the potential for the emergence of shape semantics. In presenting their view, Jun and Kim (2003) offer the following rationale: â€Å"Drawings in the early phase of design support both continuity and change in a process of design through the use of two different types of drawings (1): context drawings which hold the evolving design decisions, and exploration drawings which are abstracted from the context drawing and act as graphic probes to investigate selected issues. The notion of emergence in design is found here. The ambiguity of the exploration drawings enables a designer to read more out of a drawing than he or she puts into it; that is, to generate new meanings within the design task. Through exploring drawings that are ambiguous until concept formation (2) is reached, various interpretations, in particular in visual aspect, are possible. As a consequence new drawings emerge. This process plays a crucial role to develop conceptual form in architectural design.† The limitations found in CAD systems are based in the fact that they are fixed, in terms of the representation that are embedded (Jun and Kim, 2003). They argue that there are three types of emergence in the architectural field, â€Å"†¦ shape emergence, shape semantics, and style emergence† (Jun and Kim, 2003). The rationale for this brief look at emergent shape semantics is that it represents a visual design concept, thus representing a segment of creativity (Jun and Kim, 2003). An alternative view of computers and creativity is offered by Kathleen Gibson, an associate professor of design and environmental analysis, who believes that computers actually aid in increasing creativity (Winter, 2003). Professor Gibsons unconventional approach is based upon the rationale that the designer can look at a multitude of differing examples, shapes, configuration and styles as part of their own internal creative processes and potential come up with ideas, shapes, and approaches that they may not have worked on without the aide of a computer to run through variations (Winter, 2003). Mathias (1993) advises that the more time and input designers spend on conceptualising through drawing, visualising as well as re-evaluating designs, the more they, in general, generate new information through multiple reviews and analysis, also resulting in reasoned explanations concerning problems, and proposed solutions. Lawson (1980, p. 6) advises that design represents a mental process that is highly organised, that is capable of manipulating differing as well as many kinds of information. He adds that the preceding blends that data into a set of ideas that is coherent, and finally results on the generation of ideas related to the process (Lawson, 1980, p. 6). Design, as shown throughout this examination, is a process, involving creativity, mental reviews, the manipulation of data and ideas, along with design possibilities, and then synthesising the process toward the end solution. In looking closely at the foregoing, it can easily be deduced that the limitations of the foregoin g are represented by the breathe of experience, exposure and mental foundation bank of the designer. This thus further explains why Mathias (1993) makes his statement that the more time designers spend on ‘drawing, visualising as well as re-evaluating designs, the more they, in general, generate new information through multiple reviews and analysis, the more they see other approaches, solutions and ways in which to accomplish the task, thus heightening their creativity. The explanation of the design process foregoing represents the use of non-creative facets, such as a systematic approach to the design issues and problems (Browne and Smith, 1993, pp. 1209-1218). Hertz (1992, pp. 396) brings forth what he terms as the mental synthesis-creation cycle, which represents the process of exploring alternatives in the development of the design that solves the end product and or building / structure. This represents the same approach, in general conception, as offered by Lawson (1980, p. 6). Chapter 3 Creativity Creativity, as stated by Turner (1994, p. 21) represents â€Å"†¦ the bringing forth of an original product of the human mind †¦Ã¢â‚¬ , which also has what he terms as its â€Å"†¦ mundane side as well†. The creative process is present in all of us. It represents our approach to problem solving for issues that we have not experienced before, through utilising past knowledge combined in new ways to result in a solution (Turner, 1994, p. 21). In equating creativity Weisberg (1986, p. 10) tell us that a solution is creative if it has significant novelty, and is useful. In order to qualify as creative, the new approach, and or solution must be new as well as different from those that preceded it, and, those differences need to be significant (Weisberg, 1986, pp. 12-13). The utility, usefulness, is the second facet present in a creative solution, it must solve the problem in a new, and better manner than those that preceded it, that can include at less cost, fewer parts, faster response time, etc. (Weisberg, 1986, pp. 12-13). In the design process, Cross (1986, p. 15) advises that the special ways in which designers think is embedded in their visual thinking process. Their process of creativity is based in lines, relationships, drawings and formulas representing their approach to problems (Cross 1986, p. 17-18). It must be noted that Dorst et al (1991, pp. 39-40) brought forth that the field of study in terms of design thinking was found lacking in three important areas. Dorst el al (1991, p. 42) identified the preceding as 1. a lack of research clarity, 2. lack of consistency in the tools, methods and theories utilised, and 3. the lack of a common unifying purpose. In defining design thinking, Dorst et al (1991, p. 43) advise that it represents the totality of cognitive activities during the design. The preceding is called ‘design reasoning that is distinguished from inituition as a result of the conscious as well as predictable use of rules representing inference for the outcomes of using and mani pulating design information. The preceding brings forth the facet of intuition as an important part of the process (Dorst et al, 1991, p. 46). It, intuition, resides in the subconscious, which represents the synthesis of experiences, ideas, new approaches and concepts to result in approaches (Dorst et al , 1991, p. 46). In subjecting the preceding to experimentation, Dorst et al (1991, p. 46-48) utilised four designers in a reasoning task that was comprised of a series of architectural drawings for buildings of modest size containing 9 errors. The designers had to locate the errors in a think aloud mode to let their processes be known, which was being recorded, and also making sketches, along with marking the drawings (Dorst et al, 1991, p. 46-48). Later analysis of the recordings resulted in the formulation of two groupings. One represented the mental process of new design generation through changes in the drawings and designs (Dorst et al, 1991, p. 46-48). The second category revealed that the verbal statements made led to new information generation that built upon prior statements they uttered aloud (Dorst et al, 1991, p. 46-48). Their prior histories and experiences represented the database to ascertain the errors, and pose solutions. In commenting upon this Dorst et al (1991, p. 46-48) noted th at the resulting changes were not novel, nor creative, but did solve the errors. The purpose of the foregoing is that the designers were only given a limited time frame in which to conduct their reviews, which demonstrated visual thinking as well as visual reasoning processes (Dorst et al, 1991, p. 46-48). The importance of the preceding is that it brought forth the manner in which designers use visual thinking to stimulate their processes. Wiggins and Schon (1992, pp. 45-51) provide illumination to this direction in advising that drawings and representation represent the manner in which designers communicate, not only with themselves, they also use it to communicate with others in furtherance of their ideas. Important in the preceding, is that designers employ visual thinking that consists of three types of visual imagery. The preceding is represented by what they see, what they imagine, and what they draw (McKim, 1980, p. 26). The foregoing is a highly important point in this examination, thus the rationale for the exploration these areas. Drawings and other visual representations aid in the stimulation process. It is the combination of these factors that are utilised by designers in the process of creating new designs and creative solutions. Further elaboration on this process is important in understanding the manner in which visual representations aid the design, and creative processes. Wiggins and Schon (1992, pp. 102-122) tell us that drawings help the designer in seeing, interpreting what can be potentially moved, re-evaluated, and or transformed. Tovey (1989, pp. 26-31) argues that seeing is an important part of the design process as it aids the designer in imaging, which prompts creativity and drawing. The preceding three processes work together to encourage visual thinking. The connection between the use of computers as an aid in this process will be further explored to draw upon examples that either support or refute if generative design impacts the designer, and if it aids or diminishes creativity. Herbert (1988, pp. 26-40), in his exploration of the design process states that once a designer begins to perceive the task, images, and or pictures representing solutions start to be generated in the designers mind. He adds that in the beginning of the process, these images, pictures, ideas and thoughts are not really well defined, thus needing further development (Herbert, 1988, pp. 26-40). The next stage on the process moves towards more refinement as potential solutions, a means to these ends and the routes and ideas as to how to arrive there start to develop (Herbert, 1988, pp. 26-40). The foregoing was brought forth by Mathias (1993) who advised that designer tends to utilise drawing as a means to move to developing their first ideas, and in later stages of the process, drawings are utilised for synthesis. This is what Mathias (1993) describes as stepping back and then forward in the mental processes to be engaged, and then reflect on what has been thought, to re-engage the pro cess again. Mathias (1993, pp. 113) diagrams the preceding as follows: Diagram 1 Designers Framework for Idea Development (Mathias, 1993, p. 113) Analysis of problem statement Holistic solution concept Problem Solution concept Convergence Exploration Validation Solution Mathias (1993) and McKim (1980) follow the same conceptual foundation in terms of imagery (drawings), representing a foundational facet in the design process. The preceding is part of the creative mental synthesis process whereby ideas begin as a result of engagement with the project. Verstijnen (1997), conducted experiments based upon the research methods of Finke (1990) as well as Helstrup and Anderson (1993). The six experiments conducted by Verstijnen (1997) used undergraduate industrial design engineering and psychology students to investigate emergent figures and drawing / sketching relationships. The experiment called for some students to utilise sketching and drawing, and the others to use mental processes only in resolving the problem of wire frame drawings that had figures embedded (Verstijnen, 1997). The second experiment represented the investigation of creative mental synthesis tasking asked to generate shapes that were creative based upon a cube, sphere and cone. The results indicated that the restrictions of memory was not a motivating factor in sketching as an aid in creative mental synthesis experiments (Verstijnen, 1997). In the reinterpretation of shapes, the task proved difficult based upon the utilisation of imagery alone, thus suggesting an aid was needed, drawing (Verstijnen, 1997). She added that sketching for use in synthesis may not play a significant, and or important role, however in creative mental synthesis, sketching helped to yield a higher number of creative forms (Verstijnen, 1997). A comparison of the engineering students, and non-students was not included in her study (Verstijnen, 1997). From the foregoing, the data thus far reviewed seemingly indicates that visual thinking represents an important facet of creative mental synthesis, which is important in the design of new objects. The foregoing also seems to point to the fact that the manipulation of visual images in a mental mode is an important aspect of mental creative synthesis. In addition, the preceding seems to also point to the fact that drawing is important in supporting the process of creative synthesis in new design. The use of the word seemingly and seem are utilised as there is little to no empirical evidence to support the preceding, thus the views are based upon the views as expressed by a number of authors and researchers. Chapter 4 Generative Design In generative design, the description and design of relationships and components is accomplished by the use of powerful algorithms (MacDonald et al, 2005). These algorithms permit users to manipulate geometry and dynamically model through the application of rules that capture relationships in geometric features, along the defining of complex forms (MacDonald et al, 2005). Under a generative design program, the designer, utilising a CAD tool that specifies parameters and the restraints, the program then generates a number of outcomes that the designer then utilises as input, and or for another generation of shapes, forms or approaches, solutions (MacDonald et al, 2005). The generative design approach is applicable in the whole design process, once the parameters have been input and modified (Gatarski and Pontecorvo, 1999). Generative design has been employed in the development of cars, cell phones, structures and other areas. CAD and Design Automation software has long been utilised to optimise the assembly of differing design elements. Through the use of visualisation software, designers are able to see the results without having to build prototypes. In the generative design methodology, outcomes are rendered after a detailed and high level of input specification, thus saving time over the CAD and Design Automation approach that requires time in that each instance of an idea has to be imagined, manually expressed, and evaluated (Gatarski and Pontecorvo, 1999). On the most basic level, generative design systems consist of four elements (Gatarski and Pontecorvo, 1999): design representation, generation engine, expression engine, mechanism for evaluation and selection of the new generated specifications The following, further explains the workings within these steps (Gatarski and Pontecorvo, 1999): design representation, The design representation are input as a set of parameters, along with the corresponding constraints. In the preceding, the parameter sets represent the genetic design elements, defining the form as well as structural aspects. The constraint set controls the aesthetic as well as the fabrication facets, meaning the limitations as afforded by the material dynamics to be utilised. The foregoing constraints, and rules thus place a limit on the range of the generated design. generation engine This aspect of the generative design process represents the internal process that generates the new design descriptions. It represents a set of prototype design descriptions that are also termed as ‘parents, and then utilises the algorithm to take the parameter sets and combine them into new descriptions, or children. In general, the algorithms use operations that are based upon the concepts found in the mutation and crossover aspects found in genetics. The preceding thus ensures that the descriptions, children, are drawn from the parameter values as contained in the prototype set. expression engine In the process of generative design, the expression engine interprets the descriptions, rendering them into a structure or model. The process can be set so that it is modular, thus permitting it to be able to support a host of alternative interpretations. mechanism for evaluation and selection of the new generated specifications The generative design approach is based upon having an objective function that evaluates the fitness output of the specifications of the design. In creative design area this facet is usually embedded in the human using the system. The foregoing is termed the human user in the loop as it provides a more intelligent and analytic capability as opposed to computed functions. The preceding is described as being a better match for the ranges of possibilities offered by the generative approach. Generative design offers the ability for designers to try as many ideas as possible, a critical facet when time is a constraining factor. It permits designers to thus present a variety of solutions that can thus be evaluated internally and or through focus group testing to refine the process and move to the final design variables. The foregoing recognises the fact that the design process has always been a process that is subject to the acceptance of the end user, which is either the client, or the general public. It, generative design, thus represents a means to work through a wide variety of approaches to achieve faster approximations of what will work. Chapter 5 The Role of Computers If computers are potentially limiting, and or taking away design creativity, it would seem appropriate to example the role of computers in the design process and attending questions. In the pragmatic sense, unlimited time to render and use a design is not a function of the design process. Whatever the function, be it architecture or products, there is a limited time frame for the design process to take shape, evolve, become proven through mathematical, structural, component material and cost / build considerations. The preceding represent constraints on the process that are real as well as binding. Computers have advanced the process of design through software such as CAD that enable users to perform a number of functions in time saving fashion. The preceding takes in such functions as (SAP, 2006): wire frame geometry creation, solid modelling, 3D parametric, freeform surfaces, automated assembly design, engineering drawings from solid models, re-utilisation of design components ease on design modification and the generation of multiple versions, automated generation of design components, design simulation without prototype building, data exchange, as an aid in visualisation process for areas such as rotation, shading, etc., design studies as a few of the more important, or used functions. In equating this segment of the examination, the question of creativity resurfaces. As previously mentioned by Turner (1994, p. 21), creativity brings  ·Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ forth of an original product of the human mind †¦Ã¢â‚¬ . In the design process, it aids in the production of multiple view, as well as ideas. Gero (1991) indicates that there are, in his view, five creative design processes that result in the introduction of new variables in the design prototype. These are (Gero, 1991): Combination Mutation Analogy First Principles, and Emergence The following sets forth the preceding in more detail Combination Gero (1991) tells us that ‘combination represents the combining of two or more prototype designs, with the new resulting variable introduced into the original from the former. Within this process, mutation represents the alteration of variables as accomplished by external agents (Gero, 1991). Mutation Within the preceding process, mutation represents the alteration of variables as accomplished by external agents (Gero, 1991). Through mutation, new variables can result due to extrapolation, and or combination of the variables (Gero, 1991). Analogy This is also known as ‘case-based reasoning, representing structural elements applied by one prototype design into another design problem, as well as the use of past processes for a new design problem (Gero, 1991). First Principles The above is a process whereby new relational knowledge is logically derived from the behaviour of existing structures without the knowledge of the prototype (Gero, 1991). Emergence The process of inferring structural elements that are new through the extension of elements that exist, represents emergence (Gero, 1991). Indurkhya (2002), in defining creativity from a different perspective, provides insight into Geros (1991) concept of new variable introduction. H

Saturday, July 20, 2019

My Experience in the Student Leadership Program Essay -- student leader

My experience in the student leadership program was interesting and informative. These are two descriptive words that stand out in my mind about the whole program. There were times in the student leadership program when I questioned myself about being part of the class, but I overcame this once I reflected on the many things that we have learned. From the guest speakers to the projects, the class has always kept me thinking. First, the program was very informative. I took in so much information over the course of the semester that I sometimes feel overwhelmed, but in a good way. From learning how to speak in public to overcoming the potential barrier of diversity, the class informed me on how to become a successful leader in today's society. The key word is successful. Â   Anyone can attempt to lead a group, but personal and group success is what makes a great leader. A leader must be satisfied with himself and the outcome of the group to be a successful leader. Â   The class was extremely interesting. Who knew that so many speakers could impact the way a person like myself thinks. The way the class was set up is interesting in itself. The half circle that we sat in enabled us to hear each other and speak without having to completely turn, but rather just move our heads. The way that each student could express his/her own opinion is another thing that is interesting. With so many ideas f... ...ure leadership position for me. I will be heading the advertising campaign for a literacy program at Johnson Elementary School. Their plan is to use my experience and education with leadership and advertising to spread the program to hundreds of elementary schools in Kentucky. This will definitely test my leadership skills of public speaking and group cooperation. These are just two of the many leadership experiences that I have planned in my life. Â   I plan to attend the University of Kentucky and the the student leadership program has helped me prepare for this adventure. I believe that the future holds great leadership positions for me and I will not be afraid to express my skills to the world.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Contemplating The Hours :: Cunningham Hours Essays

Contemplating The Hours The Hours is about 3 women, Virginia Woolf,Laura Brown and Clarissa Vaughan who all have the same feeling in common. Each of the the women in three different time periods from in the 1940's, 1950's and the 1990's all share the thoughts of failure. Woolf thought she had failed as a writer, Brown thought she was a failure as a wife and mother, Vaughan also thought she was a failure as a writer. Each of the women also desired to escape out of their lives in the manner of suicide. Woolf's suicide was accomplished in the beginning of lthe story. Brown's attempt of suicide nixed by coming home and then later leaving her family. Vaughan's suicide thoughts was scrubbed when her friend Richard, fell to his death from a window because lhe was tired of living and he also felt that he was a faiiure. Woolf, Brown , and Vaughan also had a common bond in their position in relationships. Each of the women were in relationships that were dominated by the male dominance. Woolf had the dominating husband, Leonard who was tough as nails and critical. He always wanted perfection from those he worked with for example Ralph, whom he was always critical and hard on in terms of his work, Virginia always felt sorry for him but never would speak against her husband. She felt that she had to defend or to stand with him no matter what even if he was wrong. Brown felt that she had to have everything perfect ( the incident with the cake), yet, her husband was the middle class successful husband. Brown in the time where the husband would go off to work and the wife would stay home and take care of the family. Brown in the meantime would adore her husband and her family, yet, she would have feelings of despising her husband(he grossing her out with the way he spit over the cake when he blew out the candle on his cake), Brown also desired to get away by way of suicide ( when she checked herself in at the hotel as if she was doing something slutty and in secret) but she did not have the heart to kill herself. What she did was continue to read the book written by Virginia Woolf, whom she was an avid admirer of her. Brown was intrigued with the manner in which Woolf killed herself.