Monday, September 30, 2019
IntroductionÃ The purpose of this commentary is to explore how information and communication technologies (ICT) have forever changed many aspects of business and accounting practice and, as a result, offer new and exciting research opportunities to accounting professionals and academics. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s computerized, interconnected, global business environment, the accounting profession must deal with a host of complex issues that never existed in the pastÃ¢â¬âfor instance, how to capture and record new business transactions and events, develop value-added business and information processes, create new value-chain and supply-chain opportunities, disseminate useful knowledge to a wide array of information consumers, and provide assurance services across the entire spectrum of economic activities reflect some of the more compeUing topics of interest. Accounting researchers can add value to the profession by investigating these issues, among others, and presenting scientific results in a clear and understandable fashion to practicing accountants. An important message of this commentary is that researchers in accounting information systems (AIS) and other areas of accounting, such as financial, auditing, tax, and managerial, should work together on projects, as each party can learn a great deal from the other. Synergistic relationships arising from such teamwork hold great potential to yield high-quality research results that can have notable impact on the accounting profession. THE NEW BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING LANDSCAPE Over the past centuries, business practices and accounting procedures developed and matured a great deal, yet at a relatively predictable, slow, and controlled rate. We stand squarely, proudly, and respectfully on the broad shoulders of those who came before us, as their guidance, wisdom, and insight masterfully steered us to this place and time in the profession. However, in the apparent twinkling of an eye, ICT has disrupted our peaceful existence by radically transforming the manner in which ^^ Accounting Horizons/March 2002 business is conducted across the world and alerting us to the many challenges that lay ahead. How Technology Affects Business Practice There is little doubt that ICT has contributed immensely to the magnitude, speed, and acceleration of change in business practice over the past three decades. Rapid changes in the business world place immense pressure on business executives to stay ahead of the competition hy leveraging ICT to dramatically and continually redesign business processes and models. Using ICT to Create a Digitally Integrated Entity Figure 1 depicts an ICT infrastructure that envelopes and permeates the inputprocess-output value chain of a business entity. Encapsulated by this ICT infrastructure, digitally integrated business entities capture economic events as they unfold, process information with instantaneous speed and ubiquitous availability, and disseminate valuable decision-making information and knowledge throughout the organization. The blending of ICT and business process integration manifests itself in enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, which serve as the foundation for linking multiple, related business entities into integrated supply chains. Using ICT to Integrate the Conventional Supply Chain When related entities link their internally integrated information systems to one another, the value ofthe interconnected network potentially becomes greater than the sum ofthe participating firms* isolated systems. The supply chain illustrated in Figure 2 depicts how a digitally integrated business environment might look, assuming that conventional relationships among upstream and downstream partners remain intact. Suppliers can monitor upcoming production schedules of manufacturers to ensure that the proper amount and mix of raw materials arrive on time where needed. Upon receipt of raw materials, the manufacturer could send electronic payment to the suppliers. Conversely, the manufacturer might look upstream to ensure that primary and secondary suppliers have sufficient capacity to meet its upcoming production demands. LookingÃ downstream, a manufacturer can monitor inventory balances and movement patterns ofits product hnes to ensure that distributors have sufficient quantities of products on-hand. When new patterns emerge, for instance the activity rate for product A increases significantly for distributor X but decreases for distributor Y, the manufacturer can adjust its production and shipping schedules accordingly. Looking further downstream, distributors can monitor shelf patterns at retail locations, thereby making sure that product stock-outs do not occur. Finally, retailers can monitor changing consumption patterns of customers and adjust product mix and shelf locations correspondingly. Using ICT to Create New Business Models When ICT first arrived on the business scene, managers initially automated existing processes, rather than envisioning how ICT could be used to conduct business in new and innovative ways. Eventually business managers hegan to understand the potential of ICT to support radical changes in internal business practices; hence, they viewed the development and implementation of ERP systems as value-added endeavors for their business organizations. To some extent, business entities are experiencing a similar evolutionary adaptation to ICT in the realm of integrated supply chains. That is, the previous example reflects how business managers are using ICT to automate existing Blending Information and Communication Technology ujitk Accounting Research 67 FIGURE 1 The Digitally Integrated Business Entity Qualitative & Business & information & Quantitative Information Knowledge / Inputs Processes Low Value High Value Value-Chain FIGURE 2 The Digitally Integrated Conventional Supply Chain Suppliers Manufacturers Distributors Retailers Customers supply-chain models. However, ICT further allows new supply-chain and business models to emerge. For example, the hybrid supply chain shown in Figure 3 depicts a scenario where manufacturers deal directly with retailers, thereby bypassing the entire distributor network. For instance, assxime that a manufacturer receives real-time inputsfromretailers, via shelf sensors and cash registers, regarding the shelf location of each product, the rate at which the product is being purchased, the types of discount coupons being redeemed, and the number of units remaining on store shelves. Leveraging on such intelligence 58 Accounting Horizons/March 2002 FIGURE 3 The Digitally Integrated Hybrid Supply Chain Suppliers Manufacturers Distributors Retailers Customers gathering, the manufacturer could monitor stocks and flows at retail stores, and continuously fine-tune its production and shipping schedules. Additionally, manufacturers and retailers could enter into agreements where manufacturers assume stocking responsibihty and retain legal title until the products are sold. A scenario of this nature, often referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"vendor managed inventories,Ã¢â¬ gives manufacturers greater control over theirÃ products, while reheving financial and human resource burdens heretofore imposed on retailers. Taken one step further, manufacturers might begin to wonder why they use retailers at all, since they can create virtual storefronts on the Web, thus dealing directly with customers and allowing for creation of the virtual supply chains illustrated in Figure 4. Such economic arrangements, legitimatised under terms and conditions specified in Ã¢â¬Å"collaboration partner agreements,Ã¢â¬ are very efficient, as they reduce the number of layers from suppliers and customers, thereby dramatically increasing the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s response time and adaptability. Last, but certainly not least, ICT offers new and exciting business models previously not possible, such as virtual enterprises depicted in Figure 5. Using this type of ecommerce configuration, a virtual enterprise can establish complex interdependencies with suppliers, manufacturers, and customers, thus offering a wide array of goods and services to consumers. The virtual enterprise is organic in nature because the structures, relationships, rules, procedures, and houndaries of business relationships can adapt to ever-changing environmental conditions. ACCOUNTING AND INFORMATION SYSTEMSÃ¢â¬âSIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES The emergence of ICT over the past few decades led to a new business and academic disciplineÃ¢â¬âinformation systems (IS). Given that the vast majority of business event processing in organizations deals with accounting transactions, it is no surprise that the disciplines of accounting and IS share a high degree of commonality; yet key differences exist between the two disciplines as well. Blending Information and Communication Technology with Accounting Research 59 FIGURE 4 The Digitally Integrated Virtual Supply Chain Suppliers Manufacturers Distributors Retailers Customers FIGURES The Digitally Integrated Virtual Enterprise Similarities between Accounting and Information Systems The input-process-output value chain of a business entity sbown in Figure 1 reflects one area of convergence between the accounting and IS disciplines. For instance, both disciplines examine ways to maximize tbe efficiency and effectiveness of recording economic data, wbere issues sucb as editing and validating input data are of paramount concern. Additionally, botb disciplines investigate various approacbes to automating the immediate capture of economic events at their source as they occur via ^^ Accounting Horizons /March 2002 computer-to-computer interactions, point-of-sale applications, self-service features, and so on. Regarding tbe processing of economic events, botb disciplines seek to integrate ICT into business processes and ensure the security of corporate databases. Tbe accounting and IS disciplines also endeavor to disseminate reliable and timely information to decision makers, and advance understanding witb respect to managing business knowledge tbrougbout tbe organization, Tbe accounting and IS disciplines also seek ways to improve modeling techniques aimed at conveying semantic representations of intra- and inter-enterprise systems. Scbolars wbo engage in intellectual pursuits of this nature categorize tbeir researcb as design science. Such researcb is vitally important to tbe creation of sound Ã¢â¬Å"architectural drawingsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"engineering plansÃ¢â¬ for building reliable systems. Tbe accounting and IS disciplines furtber investigate issues tbat fall into the realm of social science. For insttmce, at tbe individual level, researcbers explore various ways to involve users in systemsÃ development and implementation projects, improve decision making via decision-support and group-support systems, and create system interfaces designed to enbance tbe efficiency and effectiveness of human-to-computer interactions. At the organizational level, the ultimate goal is to create information systems tbat best leverage firm resources to maximize profitability and competitiveness, Witb this objective in mind, researchers strive to use ICT in ways tbat support business process (re)design efforts, improve intelligence gatbering, sucb as data warebouses, data marts, and knowledge bases, and produce tbe new business models reflected in Figures 2 througb 5. Differences between Accounting and Information Systems Accounting can be viewed as a specialized information system aimed at recognizing, measuring, recording, processing, and reporting economic events affecting business entities. A noticeable divergence between tbe accounting and IS disciplines centers on the economic implications of business events. Tbe accounting discipline expends a great deal of effort deciding wbicb economic events must be recognized and how they sbould be measured. Economic concerns of tbis nature are not addressed in tbe IS literature, as event and measurement rules are taken as given. Once these important issues are resolved and codified, qualified economic events must be recorded, processed* and reported. As mentioned earlier, botb disciplines investigate similar intra-enterprise issues; however, tbe IS discipline is most concerned witb technical aspects of incorporating ICT into organizations, whereas tbe accounting discipline is most interested in leveraging ICT to improve business performance wbile simultaneously maintaining effective internal controls. With respect to system design matters, accountants help to insure that sound internal controls are developed and integrated into information systems, such as (1) editing and validating input data, (2) tracking the integrity of information tbrougbout processing, storage, and retrieval activities, (3) maintaining reliable audit trails, and (4) securing operating systems, networks, software applications, and databases so tbat only properly autborized individuals bave access to financial information. To the extent tbat internal controls of this nature cannot be incorporated into tbe system, accountants must design compensating controls around the system. Regarding business process (re)design efforts, IS researcbers again tend to focus on tecbnical matters, sucb as how to buildÃ systems tbat are adaptable to various business process models. In contrast, tbe accounting discipline focuses on developing innovative Blending Information and Communication Technology with Accounting Research 61 ways to (re)design business and information processes to improve the reliability, relevance, and timeliness of financial and nonfinancial business reporting. For example, accounting researchers might redesign business processes to incorporate a more comprehensive set offirmperformance indicators, such as balance scorecard metrics, whereas IS researchers concentrate on how to technically capture and process such input. On the output side ofthe value chain, the business vs. technical distinction between the accounting and IS disciplines emerges once again. The accounting discipline takes a Ã¢â¬Å"decision usefulnessÃ¢â¬ approach to reporting business information. Researchers in this area expend a great deal of effort identifying the nature of financial and nonfinancial information needed by decision makers, translating critical business information into knowledge, integrating knowledge bases throughout the organization, and designing individual- and group-level decision support systems. Although the IS discipline is also involved with information dissemination, knowledge management, and decision support, IS research focuses not on content issues, but on the technical aspects of using ICT for such purposes. Business process (re)design efforts cEin extend beyond the intra-enterprise boundary to include inter-enterprise linkages, such as those represented by Figures 2 through 5. Creating and maintaining externalities of this nature beget a host of business and accounting risk issues for trading partners. For instance, because trading partners are concerned about potential business interruptions during the implementation and operation of inter-enterprise systems, contingency and backup plans must be developed and tested. Trading partners also monitor and control external transactions and agreements to ensure that all parties in the inter-enterprise network live up their trading partner arrangements, else a weak link in the chain couid have serious business and financial implications for all interdependent tradingÃ partners. While the accounting discipline focuses on these types of implementing, monitoring, and controlling issues, the IS discipline concentrates on the technical aspects of establishing and maintaining inter-enterprise relationships. Finally, the accounting discipline provides public assurances regarding the extent to which financial statements fairly refiect the financial position ofthe enterprise and the ICT infrastructure is reliable. The information systems discipline is uninvolved with providing such assurances. These similarities and differences between the accoimting and IS disciplines form the basis for the accounting value chain, presented next. THE ACCOUNTING VALUE CHAIN The accounting value chain shown in Figure 6 adapts and extends concepts imbedded in enterprise (Porter and Millar 1985), assurance (Elliott 1994), and information (Elliott 1995) value cbains. Using the accounting value chain as a guide, this section addresses one ofthe most important questions and challenges to the accounting profession. That is, how can accountants add vEilue to business organizations in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s computerized, interconnected, global business environment? Capturing Economic Events On the low-value end of the spectrum fall the traditioned functions of identifying, measuring, and recording accounting transactions as they pierce the boundary of the entity. Since most of these functions are routine and predictable, cleverly written computer programs can handle most of these activities. Sometimes, economic events unfold that are new or unusual to thefirmand require that a properly trained accountant intervene. 62 Accounting Horizons / March 2002 FIGURE 6 The Accounting Value Chain Implementing, Monitoring, & Controlling Externalities entifying, . Measuring & Recording Accounting Phenomena Designing. ^ Generating. Integrating \ Managing & Innovating & Integrating Business/Information / / Business Processes // Knowledge Developing, Providing & Reporting Assurance /: Low Value IT Can Perform Ã¢â¬ ¢ Computerized, Interconnected, Global Business Environment High Value IT Can Assist Ã¢â¬ ¢ However, on the whole, data-capturing tasks performed by accountants in the past have been supplanted by infonnation technology. Because real-time event-capturing processes are mature and reliable, accounting researchers have few opportunities in this area to add incremental value to exttint theory or practice. Processing Economic Events The next phase of the accounting value chain deals with converting data into meaningful information streams. As with input activities, computerized processing of accounting transactions is routinely automated. Reliable accounting controls are built into most infonnation-processing systems, hence the integtity of such systems is quite high. For instance, automated checks and balances, coupled with security features, can insure that data are not lost, corrupted, or altered during processing, storing, and retrieving activities. Future research in this area will not concentrate on ICT alone; rather, it will focus on how to leverage ICT to develop and integrate innovative business process models. Disseminating Business Knowledge The high-value side of the accounting value chain deals with generating, managing, and integrating business knowledge. As suggested by Elliott (2001), knowledge leveraging is the most important and distinguishing competency of professional accountants. While many information technology tools exist to assist in this regard, such as database query languages, data warehouses, and data marts, it is humans who ultimately apply reason, judgment, and interpretation to informational patternsÃ¢â¬âwhich in turn begets new knowledge. Accountants can play valuable roles in identifying, Blending Information and Communication Technology with Accounting Research 63 processing, and utilizing business knowledge, and disseminating such knowledge to other information consumers inside and outside ofthe organization. Developing Externalities A relatively new arena where accountants can add value to the business organizations concerns the development of external linkages to other firms in the environment. As discussed previously, business networks of this nature allow for the formation of emerging e-commerce models across value and supply chains. However, the creation of externalities evokes a host of implementing, monitoring, and controlling concerns relevant to accountants. For example, when a firm establishes digital connections with another firm, the rules of engagement must be carefully specified. That is, an exchange protocol must be agreed upon and collaborative partner agreements must detail the responsibilities, authorizations, and restrictions of each party. Once external linkages are in place, each party must monitor and control informational flows and exchanges to insure that the privacy, confidentiality, and security rights of affected parties are protected. Since the development of external digital linkages has significant internal control implications, accounting researchers face a host of new opportunities in this regard. Providing Assurance There are many new and exciting opportunities where the accounting profession could add value to managers, investors, and society through an expanded line of assurance services. The most notable, yet traditional, form of assurance is manifest in the auditorÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion regarding the fairness offinancialreporting. However, the heavy dependency on ITC within and across business organizations has opened doors to an entirely new line of potential assurance services. For instance, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) and Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants (CICA) considered business-to-consumer assurance in the form of WebTrust^Ã¢â¬ . More recently, the AICPA/CICA rolled out a product called SysTrust^Ã¢â¬ , which reflects a type of business-to-business assurance. Other assurance services will Hkely emerge over time, such as assurance over the quality and reliability offirms*business and information processes, located in theÃ middle ofthe accounting value chain, and assurance over knowledge management tools and techniques, located on the upper end ofthe spectrum. Last, but certainly not least, a new breed of e-commerce assurance service opportunities will likely emerge as firms begin to link their internal systems to one another, thereby forming unique and innovative e-commerce models. Synergistic Research Opportunities in Accounting The accounting value chain illustrated in Figure 6 provides a structure for pondering and framing a wide array of research questions for accounting scholars. The more prominent issues investigated by accounting information systems researchers are reflected in an upcoming AIS research monograph sponsored by the Information Systems Section of the American Accounting Association.Ã¢â¬â¢ Since most of these issues have been directly or indirectly addressed above, this section identifies representative areas where accounting information systems and other accounting researchers can collaborate on research projects. Ã¢â¬Ë Arnold, V, and S. Sutton, Researching Accounting as an Information Systems Discipline, Information SyBtems Section of the American Accounting Association, forthcoming. ^Accounting Horizons/March 2002 Business Reporting Taxonomies The AICPA, among dozens of supporters, is involved with developing a technologybased framework to allow for the automatic extraction and exchange of financial and nonfinancial information across multiple, disparate software applications. Realization of this framework will facilitate many desired goals, such as the creation of global supply chziins, immediate dissemination of financial statements to the public, transmission of regulatoryfilingsto governmental agencies, and so on. The technology behind this framework is called extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL), also known as the digital language of business. More infonnation about XBRL can be found at httpi/Avww.xbrl.org. In order to realize the full potential of XBRL, each data item in a corporate database must be precisely defined and related to other data items. The end result of this mapping process is called a taxonomy. For example, if all firms engaged in producing widgets agree on a standardized taxonomy for their industry and map their corporate data accordingly, then financial and nonfinancial information could fiow freely across the industry, regardless of the types of software and hardware being used by the firms. Taken a step further, if trading partner firms involved with the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s supply chain have access to the taxonomy, then they, too, can easily share business information. This example can be extended to a global setting as well. Research opportunities in this area seek to develop taxonomies to be used for various industries, regulatory agencies, accounting jurisdictions, supply chains, and so on. For instance, AIS researchers could collaborate with financial accountants on the development of XBRL taxonomies focused on financial reporting, including global taxonomies, and with managerial accountants on taxonomies dealing with internal reporting and supply chains. Continuous Financial Reporting In an effort to be more responsive to information consumers, publicly traded companies are considering the merits of providing financial statements on a more frequent basis than the current quarterly reporting period. Many issues and concerns arise with respect to continuous financial reporting, such what is meant by continuous (e.g., monthly, weekly, daily), how to deal with accruals, deferrals, and estimates in a continuous reporting environment, and the impact of continuous reporting on the capital market. Regarding the latter issue, financial and AIS researchers could simulate and compare various reporting frequencies, such as quarterly-to-monthly vs. quarterly-toweekly, and conduct either behavioral or experimental economic studies to investigate the impact of more frequent reporting on stock price valuations and market volatility. Continuous Assurance To the extent that continuous financial reporting becomes a reality, the accounting profession must deal with the concomitant demand for continuous, or at least more frequent, assurance. The potential research issues in this area include: (1) the type of assurance to renderÃ¢â¬âaudit or review, (2) the marketplace demand for continuous assurance, (3) the impact of continuous assurance on the audit process, and (4) ways that audit firms can leverage ICT to render an effective yet efficient audit under these circumstances. For example, auditing and AIS researchers could collaborate on projects investigating the efficacy of various types of ICT, such as embedded audit modules, for monitoring client transactions and activity levels and insuring that firmsÃ do not change financial information on their Internet sites eifler the auditors have provided assurance. Blending Information and Communication Technology with Accounting Research 66 Quality of Earnings The possibilities of continuousfinancialreporting and related assurance beget questions concerning quality of earnings. For instance, to what extent will more frequent reporting affect a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to manage earnings since accruals, deferrals, and estimates must be more closely tied, in real-time, to related economic events? Could a credit sale transaction captured at a cash register include estimated allowances for doubtful accounts and returned goods based on a percentage ofthe sale amount? Will more continuous assurance affect the nature and extent of earnings management attempts if the firm believes that auditors are more likely to detect such activity in a continuous assurance scenario? AIS and audit researchers can certainly team up to tackle such issues. Market Value of Accounting Systems The impact of ICT on accounting systems has evolved from fairly simple general ledger applications to extremely complex ERP systems. When firms adaptfromone type of system to another, they typically incur huge outlays offinancialand human capital. Questions arise regarding the underlying value of embarking on enormous capital projects of this nature. One aspect of Ã¢â¬Å"valueÃ¢â¬ can be viewedfromthe perspective of investors. For instance, how do investors respond when a firm announces that it plans to adopt an ERP system? While this question deals with investorsÃ¢â¬â¢ initial beliefs regarding ERP adoption, a follow-up question could focus on the extent to which ERP systems actually improve firm performance over time. Recently, AIS and financial accounting researchers joined forces to examine the first question (Hayes et al. 2001). Reading a study of this nature can help AIS and non-AIS researchers envision the end result of such collaborative efforts. Internal Value of Accounting Systems In a similar vein, researchers could investigate the value of enterprise-wide information systems to internal decision makers and business processes. For example, to what extent do ERP systems improve the timeliness, reliability, andÃ relevance of decision-making information throughout thefirm?Do enterprise-wide systems offer a realistic framework for creating value-added data warehouses and data marts? To what extent can the firm attribute quality improvements in critical success factors, such as services, products, processes, and morale, to enterprise-wide systems? AIS and managerial accounting researchers could collaborate on these and related issues. Decision Support Systems Advances in ICT facilitate the development of a host of potential decision-support systems at both the individual and group level. For instance, decision-support systems can be developed to help design effective internal control structures, configure optimal business processes, and assess business and audit risks. Issues such as interface design, information content, training value, and user reliance are some ofthe more fruitful areas of inquiry. Depending on the context ofthe proposed decision support system, AIS researchers can work with financial, managerial, tax, and audit researchers. Knowledge Management One of the more promising areas of value creation for oi^emizations is to capture, store, process, and disseminate business knowledge. Firm- and industry-spedfic knowledge is accumulated over time on key issues such as research and development, marketing strategies, customer relations, process quality, and so on. A Ã¢â¬Å"best practicesÃ¢â¬â¢* knowledge base dealing with topics of this nature can be developed so that institutional 66 Accounting Horizons /March 2002 knowledge can be transferred across persons, settings, and time to facilitate organizational and individual learning and growth opportunities. AIS and managerial researchers can investigate critical design issues in knowledge management systems and ways to encourage employees to rely on such systems as electronic colleagues. Risk Assessm.ent and Management When firms switch from one accounting system to another, say from a traditional general ledger system to an ERP system, the nature and extent of business, internal control, and audit risks can change considerably. For instance, ERP systems are more likely than general ledger systems to cause business interruptions due to the tightly integrated nature of ERP systems coupled with programmed workflow automation from one business process to another. In addition, security risks are often heightened with ERP systems, since corporate information is stored in a relational database and a compromise ofthe database, via viruses, hackers, employees, and the like, can ripple throughout the organization. Company managers and internal and external auditors must be aware of risk differentials across accounting systems and revise contingency strategies, internal controls, and audit plans accordingly. AIS, audit, and managerial scholars can develop projects aimed at delineating risk profiles of various technology-based accounting systems. Once unique risks are identified, AIS and audit researchers can examine the extent to which external auditors are aware ofthe unique risks posed by different systems and how they either do or should adjust audit plans in response to differential risk profiles. A recent study by Hunton et al. (2002) represents an example how AIS and audit researchers are working together in this area. Systems Reliability Assurance The new SysTrust^Ã¢â¬ assurance service proposed by the AICPA/CICA holds great potential as a revenue generator for CPA/CAfirms.SysTrust^Ã¢â¬ attests to the rehability of a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s information systems. For example, company management would make assertions about one or any combination ofthe following reliability dimensions of its information systems: availability, security, and integrity and maintainability.^ Additionally, management can narrow the scope ofthe system to which the assertions apply, such as accounts receivable only, all financial applications, or the entire ERP suite of applications. Then, independent auditors are hired to test for compliance with stated assertions and offer related assurances to the public in the form of an opinion. A firm could voluntarily request a SysTrust^Ã¢â¬ engagement to provide comfort to current and potential trading partners, or a potential trading partner might demand that the other partner receive such assurance before entering into a contractual arrangement. AIS, audit, and financial researchers can collaborate on projects designed to investigate various issues, such as (1) the perceived value of placing assurance on various combinations of systems reliabihty dimensions, (2) how companies and audit firms can conduct cost-benefit analyses of SysTrust^Ã¢â¬ engagements, and (3) risk factors affecting the market demand for systems reliability assurance. These four dimensions of systems reliability represent the four principles of SysTrust^**. Blending Information and Communication Technology with Accounting Research 67 SUMMARY As highlighted throughout this commentary, information and communication technologies have radically transformed the nature of business and accounting practice. Accordingly, the manner in which accountants can potentially add value to economic entities and society is undergoing a metamorphosis. As suggested by the accounting value chain shown in Figure 6, many traditional accounting tasks dealing with recording and processing of accounting transactions can be reliably automated. Thus, accountants add little incremental value to organizations in this regard anymore. Rather, an accountantÃ¢â¬â¢s worth is now reflected in higher-order critical-thinking skills, such as designing business processes, developing e-business models, providing independent assurance, and integrating strategic knowledge. Many of the research issues reviewed in this commentary are interlaced with related topics in financitd accounting, auditing, managerial accounting, and taxation. Methodological approaches used to investigate accounting information systems research questions, such as scientific modeling, archival analyses, and behavioral experiments and qualitative inquiries, are also common across accounting domains. Given such complementary interdependences, the academic community would be enriched if AIS scholars were to collaborate on research projects with other accounting reseairchers, where possible, as resulting synergistic relationships will most certainly produce highquality, relevant studies that could drtimatically shape the future of the accounting profession and business practice. REFERENCES Elliott, R. K. 1994. Confronting the future: Choices for the attest function. Accounting Horizons 8 (3): 106-124. , 1995, The future ofÃ assurance services: Implications for academia. Accounting Horizons 9(4): 118-127, . 2001. A perspective on the proposed global credential. Accounting Horizons 15 (4): 359372, Hayes, D,, J. Hunton, and J. Reck. 2001. The impact of ERP announcements on stock prices. Joumal of Information Systems 15 (1) (Spring): 3-18. Hunton, J., S. Wright, and A, Wright. 2002. Unique internal control issues in ERP environments. Working paper. University of South Florida, Tampa, FL. Porter, M. E., and V, E, Millar. 1985. How information gives you a competitive advantage. Harvard Business Review 63 (4): 149-160.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Armstrong, (2006) defined Human Resource policies as continuing guidelines on the approach the organization intends to adopt in managing its people. In addition, it can also be defined as the philosophies and values of the organization on how people should be treated, and from these are derived the principles upon which managers are expected to act when dealing with Human Resource matters. Human Resource policies therefore serve as reference points when employment practices are being developed, and when decisions are being made about people. Mullins, (2005) highlighted that Human Resource Management must be committed to creating a working environment free from discrimination and where all employees are treated equally with dignity, courtesy and respect. This can be done by putting into place Human Resource policies that shows how people should be treated, and from these are derived the principles upon which managers are expected to act when dealing with Human Resource matters. The most common areas in which specific Human Resource policies exist are HIV and AIDS, discipline, employee development, employee relations, recruitment and selection, equal opportunity, grievances, health and safety, managing diversity, promotion, redundancy, reward, sexual harassment, substance abuse and work life balance and e-mails and the internet. Cole (1997) argued that this employment equity policy helps in preventing discrimination and promoting equality in the workplace. The equal opportunity policy should spell out the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s determination to give equal opportunities to all, irrespective of sex, race, creed, disability, age or marital status. The policy should also deal with the extent to which the organization wants to take affirmative action to redress imbalances between numbers employed according to sex or race, or to differences in the levels of qualifications and skills they have achieved. According to the Labour Act (Chapter 28:01),Section 5 states that no employer shall discriminate any employee or prospective employee on grounds of race, tribe, place of origin, political opinion, colour, creed, gender, pregnancy, HIV/AIDS status or subject to the Disabled Persons Act (Chapter 17:01). Every manager must take steps to promote equal opportunity in the workplace by eliminating unfair discrimination in any employment policy or practice within their sphere of authority. All forms of unfair discrimination, whether direct or indirect, are prohibited and it is the responsibility of all employees to inform themselves about and refrain from perpetrating unfair discrimination. The sexual harassment policy is another policy which aims at preventing and managing sexual harassment in the workplace. Sexual harassment is unwanted and unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favours, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of employment; or is used as the basis for employment decisions affecting such an individual. The company must prohibit inappropriate conduct that is sexual in nature at work, on company business, or at company sponsored events. This can be done by prohibiting comments, jokes, or degrading language or behavior that is sexual in nature, sexually suggestive objects, books, magazines, photographs, cartoons, pictures, calendars, posters or electronic communications and unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favours, or any sexual touching this is according to Armstrong (2006). Sexual harassment is prohibited whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s between members of the opposite sex or members of the same sex. All managers have a key responsibility in establishing and maintaining a workplace free from personal harassment and they are directly responsible for the conduct of their staff. Sexual harassment is regarded as gross industrial misconduct and if proved makes the individual liable for instant dismissal. Less severe penalties may be reserved for minor cases but there will always be a warning that repetition will result in dismissal. Therefore all employees are expected to comply with this policy and that it is the pers onal responsibility of each employee to ensure that inappropriate conduct does not occur, as stated by Armstrong (2010). Safety policies should reflect the employers commitment to safety and health at work and should indicate what standards of behavior are to be aimed for in safety and health welfare matters. The policy statement should be drawn to the attention of all employees. In practice this is achieved by issuing a safety policy document to all employees via their pay packets, or by issuing company handbooks which include details of the policy. The important point is that the employer should be able to show that he has done more than just pin up a notice in various parts of his premises, this is postulated by Mullins (2005). The HIV/Aids policy is also used and its purpose is to provide guidance on managing departmental responses to HIV/AIDS in a manner that complies with the National Aids Policy and applicable laws, eliminates unfair discrimination and enables the harnessing of each personÃ¢â¬â¢s full potential. Employees who know that they are infected with HIV will not be obliged to disclose the fact to the company, but if they do, the fact will remain completely confidential. There must be no discrimination against anyone with or at risk of acquiring AIDS. In addition, employees infected by HIV or suffering from AIDS must be treated no differently from anyone else suffering a severe illness. All human resources processes and practices should promote an affirming non-discriminatory environment that fosters respect for the dignity of all while ensuring the maximum productivity of each employee regardless of HIV/AIDS status. This will be done through a regular review of all human resources practices and processes to eliminate existing or potential direct and indirect discrimination on the ground of HIV/AIDS. A prospective employee will not be required to disclose his or her HIV/AIDS status, there shall be no pre-employment HIV/AIDS testing in respect of a prospective employee and both permanent and contract employees are not obliged to disclose their HIV/AIDS status, as subject to Labour Relations Act (chapter 28:01). Recruitment and selection policies are also used to ensure a work environment that is anti discriminatory, democratic, respectful of rights, mindful of dignity and legally sound or legitimate. The Human resource department must be committed to utilise recruitment and selection practices that are based on merit, equity, objectivity, fairness and the need to redress the imbalances of the past so as to achieve a department that is broadly representative. According to Storey (1995), the recruitment process should reflect the departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s employment equity values and goals. Moreover, all phases of the recruitment process must support the recruitment of suitably qualified men and women from diverse racial and other backgrounds with a view to giving them an opportunity to serve all the people with excellence and responsiveness. Considerations of affirmative action will inform the entire recruitment process. The policy on age and employment should take into account that age is a poor predictor of job performance. It is misleading to equate physical and mental ability with age. More of the population are living active, healthy lives as they get older. Therefore the policy should define the approach the organization adopts to engaging, promoting and training older employees. It should emphasize that the only criterion for selection or promotion should be ability to do the job; and for training, the belief that the employee will benefit, irrespective of age. The policy should also state that age requirements should not be set out in external or internal job advertisements. Armstrong (2006). Diversity management policy is a concept that recognizes the benefits to be gained from differences. A policy on managing diversity recognizes that there are differences among employees and that these differences, if properly managed, will enable work to be done more efficiently and effectively. This concept does not focus exclusively on issues of discrimination but instead concentrates on recognizing the differences between people. Maund (2001) express it, the concept of managing diversity is founded on the premise that harnessing these differences will create a productive environment in which everyone will feel valued, where their talents are fully utilized and in which organizational goals are met. The diversity management policy must acknowledge cultural and individual differences in the workplace, state that the organization values the different qualities that people bring to their jobs, emphasize the need to eliminate bias in such areas as selection, promotion, performance asse ssment, pay and learning opportunities and focus attention on individual differences rather than group differences. Mathis, (2003) is of the view that the disciplinary policy should state that employees have the right to know what is expected of them and what could happen if they infringe the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s rules. It would also make the point that, in handling disciplinary cases, the organization will treat employees in accordance with the principles of natural justice. It must be the policy of the company that employees should be given a fair hearing by their immediate supervisor or manager concerning any grievances they may wish to raise, have the right to appeal to a more senior manager against a decision made by their immediate supervisor or manager and have the right to be accompanied by a representative of their own choice when raising a grievance or appealing against a decision. Cole, (1997) highlighted that the reward policy must cover matters as providing an equitable pay system, equal pay for work of equal value, paying for performance, competence, skill or contribution, sharing in the success of the organization and the relationship between levels of pay in the organization and market rates. There must not be discrimination of employees in pay levels. This will encourage the optimum productivity from employees and ensures high level of quality output. A performance management system must be put in place so as to pay employees according to their performance and efforts. Armstrong (2006) is of the opinion that job evaluation must also be done in a fairly and equitable manner so as to have a free work environment. In conclusion, companies must be committed to providing a work environment free of discrimination and harassment. Human Resource policies must prohibit discrimination and harassment in the workplace, whether committed by or against managers, co-workers, customers, vendors, or visitors. Employees must work and develop in an environment that is anti-discriminatory, democratic, respectful of rights, mindful of dignity, legally sound and productive. Workplace discrimination or harassment based on an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s race, colour, religion, sex, national origin, citizenship, age status, sexual orientation, disability, marital status, or any other basis prohibited by law, must not be tolerated. REFERENCES Armstrong, M. (2006) Strategic Human Resource Management, (3rd Ed), London: Kogan. Armstrong, M. (2006) A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, (10th Ed), London: Kogan. Cole G.A. (1997), Personnel Management, Theory and Practice, London: Continuum. Labour Relations Act Regulations (1998), HIV and AIDS, Government Printers: Zimbabwe. Maund, L. (2001), An Introduction to Human Resource Management Theory And Practice, New York: Palgrave. Mullins, L. J. (2005), Management and Organizational Behavior, England: Prentice Hall. Storey, J.(1995), Human Resource Management: A critical text, London: Routledge.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Dylan Cruz English12/23/11Black Men and Public Space In ?Black Men and Public Space? , Brent Staples writes about how he was treateddifferently at various times due to being African Ã ± American. Staples uses exposition to helpshow the various times where people acted differently when they saw him all due to his race. From confrontations on the street to being confused for a robber as he was rushing to hand in anarticle for a magazine, it is clear that he is treated unfairly. Staples uses cause and effect to showhow he does things differently now, hoping that people may see him in another light.He alsocompares and contrasts how some situations would be different if he were of a different race. Histone and diction throughout the work is also interesting, as he does not seem angry about how heis being treated. Staples lists many examples throughout ? Black Men and Public Space? where he hasÃ been treated differently because of his race. When Brent had some down time, he decided to g ointo a jewelry store. ?The proprietor excused herself and returned with an enormous redDoberman pinscher straining at the end of a leash.?This is an excellent example of being treateddifferently. If any other person had gone in there the owner would not have reacted in the shedid. Another example he uses is when he first begins to notice that people see him differently. Hewas in college on walking on the streets late at night when he sees a woman walking in theopposite direction as he. ?It was clear that she thought herself the quarry of a mugger, a rapist, orÃ worse.? These examples Staples brings forward clearly show that he is treated unfairly justÃ because of his skin color.Staples also uses other rhetorical strategies throughout his work, including cause andeffect and as well as comparing and contrasting. After seeing all the situations in which he isunfairly judged, he begins to do things hoping people will see past his skin color. He writes, ? Inow take precautions to ma ke myself less threatening.? Now when he's walking around a night,he whistles Beethoven and Vivaldi tunes, stating ? Virtually everybody seems to sense that amugger wouldn't be warbling bright, sunny selections from Vivaldi'sFour Seasons ?. Staplesalso compares and contrasts some situations, like how people treat him differently if they see himin business clothes versus seeing him in casual attire. The tone Staples uses in this work is very interesting. Even though he has been constantlyÃ judged by the color of his skin, he doesn't seem very angry about it. The tone in this is verystraightforward and to the point. This may be because he's realized that people are going toÃ judge him, and he can't do anything about it and just accept it.Also, it's happened to him on somany occasions that he has gotten used to it now. The diction he uses helps prove his point thathe's not a bad person, as I don't believe any muggers would use the wide vocabulary Staplesuses throughout his work. Ev en though Brent Staples gets judged just due to his skin color, it doesn't seem botherÃ him all that much. He's able to see that it's not him that scares people; it's the stereotype that hisrace has attached to them. Through the use of examples and his unique tone, he is able to conveythis message in his writing. Black Men and Public Space In his essay, Ã¢â¬Å"Black Men and Public Space, Brent Staples expresses his experiences, struggles and discoveries of being a African American man of great stature in America in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s. His appearance aloneÃ¢â¬âa dark looming figureÃ¢â¬âsparks a subconscious fear for an ordinary man. Typical citizens only see in black and white thus their eyes cannot distinguish between Staples and a criminal who prowls the streets with the same features. Describing his own character as a courteous and harmless person, clashes with the views of those around him that possess negative stereotypes towards black men. His reverse relationship with Caucasian people make it seem that a white personÃ¢â¬â¢s fear is not as strong as the discrimination Staples encounters in his day-to-day life, making him the victim, not the culprit. Being in these situations initiates a response from Staples in order to intimidate people less. Staples, in this reading, tries to make his readers live in his shoes and acknowledge the fact not all black men are the ones that automatically appear in their mind. Sometimes the fear of stereotypes attributes more to the action and reaction to people, more so than their general logic. We might believe that issues of race and gender is not present in this time and age but it still remains maybe in stronger than in the past. Although we consider America to be an egalitarian society, it is far from it. While we wish to live in a society where stereotypes are non-existent and men are all treated equal, we as human have it in our nature Black Men and Public Space Cesar Augusto Gonzalez Professor Hargett English 1101 October 14, 2010 Vicious Cycle Throughout history, literature has served as a way of expression. Human beings have poured out their feelings onto paper, as long as there have been people interested in them. Common themes have risen through the ages, such as the contrast between light and dark. Darkness is known for its negative undertone. In earlier times, we saw darkness as an interpretation of evil; likewise, light represented God and all good.From literature we, as a society, have built what later became social rules, giving rise to things such as prejudice. In Brent Staples essay Ã¢â¬Å"Black Men and Public SpaceÃ¢â¬ this is clearly shown by the authors own experiences of antipathy and hostility towards him caused by his own self. In Ã¢â¬Å"Black Men and Public SpaceÃ¢â¬ , Brent Staples begins by coming to the realization of the way heÃ¢â¬â¢d be viewed for the rest of his life. He describes feelings of uneasiness toward s his newfound self-image. It all came to him one evening in an ally where his tall frame walked behind a young woman.She proceeded to perceive him as a threat to her safety even her life, and race off into the night. Later on his Ã¢â¬âproblem- took a deeper hit on him when even as a professional this image continued to follow him. It evolved into harm for himself when he is mistaken for a thief several times. Toward the end the author learns how to manage this issue by cleaning his image, and controlling his rage toward the ones who considered a criminal. Consistent rejection can cause a man Ã¢â¬âor woman to see the world as of one color or the other, to the extremes.Thus creating a situation of self-blame where one might think and accept that every bad incident its their own fault. He is blaming himself for actions that occur without actual intent of the so-called attacker. In Ã¢â¬Å"Black Men and Public Space,Ã¢â¬ Staples writes, Ã¢â¬Å"My first victim was a womanÃ¢â¬ (566). This phrase creates a dark tone that only gets clearer as the essay moves on. The image of Ã¢â¬â the victim- is passed onto the author itself. And the fact that is proclaiming himself as an aggressor indicates that he has acknowledged this as a reality.In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, people have the tendency to change how they Ã¢â¬âact and react- toward certain groups of people, places of interaction, friends and strangers. It can range from lowering safety standards when ones home, to the point of running from someone that, by mistake, its portrayed and related to something harmful. This can create a unique experience, most of the time being of uneasiness and stress. Staples write, Ã¢â¬Å"I First began to know the unwieldy inheritance IÃ¢â¬â¢d come into- the ability to alter public space in an ugly wayÃ¢â¬ (566).It is clearly stated in the previews quote that the author is now experimenting a new way of social awareness that itÃ¢â¬â¢s brought upon him by just being that way he is. It is surprising how fast people tend to judge yet it also can be way of protection. Even though the author might not be the real aggressor that does not takes the fact that another man like him could be the authentic one. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s civilization has grown with fear. Fear of loosing whatÃ¢â¬â¢s theirs, fear of the police, fear of politics, fear of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s unknown and different.Sometimes this can manifest in avoidance of the subject but in some occasions it can be a little more Ã¢â¬âactive-. Staples writes, Ã¢â¬Å"And I soon gathered that being perceived as dangerous itÃ¢â¬â¢s a hazard in itselfÃ¢â¬ (567). As a result of his dangerous association the author realizes that itÃ¢â¬â¢s unsafe to be outside too. As some women tend to opt just to sprint away from you, some men might choose to fight the problem. This brings concerns to the author who apart form being socially un-welcome is now threatened by his own naturally built image. Fear is accompan ied by a need for survival.Some animals grow being dominant, creating fear to control. Other just decide to hide hoping not to be involved into precarious situations. In Ã¢â¬Å"Black Men and Public SpaceÃ¢â¬ , Staples describes, Ã¢â¬Å"I chose, perhaps unconsciously, to remain a shadow Ã¢â¬â timid, but a survivorÃ¢â¬ (568). Staples explain that he took the Ã¢â¬âsmaller animal- path and tries to remain un-recognizable in order for him to have a safer journey around avoiding confrontation. Is easier to hide that to fight but in the long run that Ã¢â¬âeasiness- brings other problems, where self-blame can evolve to depression and self-depreciation.It comes a time in every manÃ¢â¬â¢s life when he has to choose between himself and society. When he has to decide whether to stand on his own or simply hide his true self in order to escape confrontation, arguments and possible rejection. Most people have a tendency to Ã¢â¬â go with the flow- be just like everyone else. Stap le writes, Ã¢â¬Å"I now take precautions to make myself less threateningÃ¢â¬ (568). This quote describes the idea previously expressed. He chooses to alter his image to make his journey safer. In order to add this newer safer self, he must subtract what he was before, losing his identity.In Staples essay Ã¢â¬Å"Black Men and Public SpaceÃ¢â¬ , big issues are explored and described in a way that we can relate to without getting lost in the context. On a narrow sense the essay can be viewed as how the author goes through the realization of how he is pictured, moving to the changes he has to make to be -socially- less threatening. Doing this one can go a process of depression and losing identity. This is just the example of only one person but this case is not reserved to him only, it happens to almost everyone and in many different levels.We are 6,602,224,175 humans suffering form all kind of unreal and unfair treatment and as a result, hate and resentment are created, and in fac t they are he main cause of racism and un fair treatment towards others thus creating a vicious cycle from which we need to get out in order for humans to walk though these crowded streets in harmony. Work Cited Brent Staples. Ã¢â¬Å"Black Men and Public SpaceÃ¢â¬ . Four in One: Rhetoric, Reader, Research Guide, and Handbook. Eds. Eduard A. Dornan and Robert Dees. 5th Edition. Boston: Longman, 2011. 167-169. Print Black Men and Public Space Cesar Augusto Gonzalez Professor Hargett English 1101 October 14, 2010 Vicious Cycle Throughout history, literature has served as a way of expression. Human beings have poured out their feelings onto paper, as long as there have been people interested in them. Common themes have risen through the ages, such as the contrast between light and dark. Darkness is known for its negative undertone. In earlier times, we saw darkness as an interpretation of evil; likewise, light represented God and all good.From literature we, as a society, have built what later became social rules, giving rise to things such as prejudice. In Brent Staples essay Ã¢â¬Å"Black Men and Public SpaceÃ¢â¬ this is clearly shown by the authors own experiences of antipathy and hostility towards him caused by his own self. In Ã¢â¬Å"Black Men and Public SpaceÃ¢â¬ , Brent Staples begins by coming to the realization of the way heÃ¢â¬â¢d be viewed for the rest of his life. He describes feelings of uneasiness toward s his newfound self-image. It all came to him one evening in an ally where his tall frame walked behind a young woman.She proceeded to perceive him as a threat to her safety even her life, and race off into the night. Later on his Ã¢â¬âproblem- took a deeper hit on him when even as a professional this image continued to follow him. It evolved into harm for himself when he is mistaken for a thief several times. Toward the end the author learns how to manage this issue by cleaning his image, and controlling his rage toward the ones who considered a criminal. Consistent rejection can cause a man Ã¢â¬âor woman to see the world as of one color or the other, to the extremes.Thus creating a situation of self-blame where one might think and accept that every bad incident its their own fault. He is blaming himself for actions that occur without actual intent of the so-called attacker. In Ã¢â¬Å"Black Men and Public Space,Ã¢â¬ Staples writes, Ã¢â¬Å"My first victim was a womanÃ¢â¬ (566). This phrase creates a dark tone that only gets clearer as the essay moves on. The image of Ã¢â¬â the victim- is passed onto the author itself. And the fact that is proclaiming himself as an aggressor indicates that he has acknowledged this as a reality.In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, people have the tendency to change how they Ã¢â¬âact and react- toward certain groups of people, places of interaction, friends and strangers. It can range from lowering safety standards when ones home, to the point of running from someone that, by mistake, its portrayed and related to something harmful. This can create a unique experience, most of the time being of uneasiness and stress. Staples write, Ã¢â¬Å"I First began to know the unwieldy inheritance IÃ¢â¬â¢d come into- the ability to alter public space in an ugly wayÃ¢â¬ (566).It is clearly stated in the previews quote that the author is now experimenting a new way of social awareness that itÃ¢â¬â¢s brought upon him by just being that way he is. It is surprising how fast people tend to judge yet it also can be way of protection. Even though the author might not be the real aggressor that does not takes the fact that another man like him could be the authentic one. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s civilization has grown with fear. Fear of loosing whatÃ¢â¬â¢s theirs, fear of the police, fear of politics, fear of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s unknown and different.Sometimes this can manifest in avoidance of the subject but in some occasions it can be a little more Ã¢â¬âactive-. Staples writes, Ã¢â¬Å"And I soon gathered that being perceived as dangerous itÃ¢â¬â¢s a hazard in itselfÃ¢â¬ (567). As a result of his dangerous association the author realizes that itÃ¢â¬â¢s unsafe to be outside too. As some women tend to opt just to sprint away from you, some men might choose to fight the problem. This brings concerns to the author who apart form being socially un-welcome is now threatened by his own naturally built image. Fear is accompan ied by a need for survival.Some animals grow being dominant, creating fear to control. Other just decide to hide hoping not to be involved into precarious situations. In Ã¢â¬Å"Black Men and Public SpaceÃ¢â¬ , Staples describes, Ã¢â¬Å"I chose, perhaps unconsciously, to remain a shadow Ã¢â¬â timid, but a survivorÃ¢â¬ (568). Staples explain that he took the Ã¢â¬âsmaller animal- path and tries to remain un-recognizable in order for him to have a safer journey around avoiding confrontation. Is easier to hide that to fight but in the long run that Ã¢â¬âeasiness- brings other problems, where self-blame can evolve to depression and self-depreciation.It comes a time in every manÃ¢â¬â¢s life when he has to choose between himself and society. When he has to decide whether to stand on his own or simply hide his true self in order to escape confrontation, arguments and possible rejection. Most people have a tendency to Ã¢â¬â go with the flow- be just like everyone else. Stap le writes, Ã¢â¬Å"I now take precautions to make myself less threateningÃ¢â¬ (568). This quote describes the idea previously expressed. He chooses to alter his image to make his journey safer. In order to add this newer safer self, he must subtract what he was before, losing his identity.In Staples essay Ã¢â¬Å"Black Men and Public SpaceÃ¢â¬ , big issues are explored and described in a way that we can relate to without getting lost in the context. On a narrow sense the essay can be viewed as how the author goes through the realization of how he is pictured, moving to the changes he has to make to be -socially- less threatening. Doing this one can go a process of depression and losing identity. This is just the example of only one person but this case is not reserved to him only, it happens to almost everyone and in many different levels.We are 6,602,224,175 humans suffering form all kind of unreal and unfair treatment and as a result, hate and resentment are created, and in fac t they are he main cause of racism and un fair treatment towards others thus creating a vicious cycle from which we need to get out in order for humans to walk though these crowded streets in harmony. Work Cited Brent Staples. Ã¢â¬Å"Black Men and Public SpaceÃ¢â¬ . Four in One: Rhetoric, Reader, Research Guide, and Handbook. Eds. Eduard A. Dornan and Robert Dees. 5th Edition. Boston: Longman, 2011. 167-169. Print
Friday, September 27, 2019
Terror problem in Turkey - Research Proposal Example It is noted that terrorism is an exaggerated way of expression that demeans the values of democracy in the world. As a result, the incumbent governments have to initiate several ways and avenues of combating terror to enhance democracy. The Turkish government has been actively involved in fighting terrorism. It is noted that Turkey established an anti-terror law in 1991. The ostensible reason for the law was to annihilate the activities of terror groups, and one of the outstanding groups was the Kurdistan Workers Party (Jones 1). The activities of the group were deemed unconstitutional as they affected a part of the society. However, in the recent time, the Turkey government has been criticized by world leaders in concerns to fighting terror attacks. The world leaders have stated that Turkey should have control mechanisms in limiting the financing of terror groups in its territory. It is evident that terror groups need massive finances to execute their ill motives, and consequentially, when they do not have finances they are unlikely to cause havoc. According to sources, the Turkish government has an intention of acting on the issue, as it is concerned about the safety of the nation. Several cases of terror attacks have been recorded in Turkey. The recent case is the bombing near the embassy of the United States. Consequentially, terror attacks in Turkey are divided into different categories. The first category is the car and truck bombings. These include the Diyarbakir incident in 2008 and 2013 Istanbul bombing (Ahmed 18). The second category involves attacks by organizations, which include Al-Qaeda and Kurdistan Workers Party. Thirdly, there is suicide bombing, which includes 2007 bombing in Ankara and 2010 Istanbul blast. Therefore, it is evident that turkey has experienced various terror attacks. As such, there is need to enhance commitment to fighting terror activities. Jones, Dorian. Turkeys Anti-Terror Law Casts Increasingly Wide Net.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Toy Sales - Essay Example It does not take long for parents to realize that the toy bought a few weeks ago has become an unwanted and useless thing. Most of these toys are in perfect shape and can be taken for toys that arrive fresh from the factory. Toys R US can open such schemes where parents can return used toys and be compensated at one-third of the original price while Toys R US can still do good and ethical business with even them by selling them at half or three-quarters of the original price. The biggest value customers find in a retailer is cost-saving. Toys R US has already built a reputation of a low-cost toy seller, but being in competition with Costco and Wal-Mart with such strategy means that costs are not sufficiently low enough. Toys R US should find out ways to reduce the cost of toys even more which may be through outsourcing toy-manufacturing services or reducing the profit margin. One way Toys R US can maintain the profitability without losing to Costco and Wal-Mart is by opening lottery schemes for the kids. Offering good quality, durable, and well-proportioned toys in lottery prizes through lucky draws every few weeks is not a huge cost to pay for sustaining the business amidst such powerful competitors as Costco and Wal-Mart. Clientelling is a very fruitful strategy that Toys R US can employ making optimal use of the technology at hand. High-end businesses employ clientelling as a strategy to pair their customer with representatives that log every action or purchase made by the customers into a database so that future services can be customized accordingly. Clientelling helps retailers build long-term relationships with their customers and build their loyalty. Toys R US can inform the customers of the arrival of toys preferred by them whenever the fresh stock of toys is received at the stores. Staff members and representatives of a retailer play a very important role in fostering its relationship with the
Child and the Law - Case Study Example The multiple needs of the child, together with the fact that he has been acting as a caregiver for his mother, make the case a multifaceted one in which several different agencies need to be involved. The basic duty of care towards Justin involves assuring he receives parental care or in loco parentis care, adequate educational opportunities and medical provisions for the "signs of depression" that might incapacitate him or even put his life in risk if they were allowed to develop into full-blown depression. All these facets need to be taken into account. Taking each part of the account of Justin in turn, this analysis will first consider the "education supervision order" which he is under and also the fact that he has been "taken into care on a voluntary basis by Hoppingdean Social Services on a number of occasions". An education supervision order is an order that is granted by a family court under the provisions of section 36 of the Children Act, 1989. The Education Supervision Order (ESO) has a clear and compelling reasoning behind it. The ESO is designed to "ensure that the child receives an efficient full-time education, suitable to his or her age, ability and any Special Educational needs; and that the Child benefits fully from the education received" (cumbria, 2006). At the present time it appears as though the general provisions of such an order are not being met for Justin. Thus the fact that his "frequent absences" have left him without the peer group vital for social development at this age, and that despite the "remedial work" being offered by the school he "has fallen far behind on his schoolwork" shows that he is clearly not receiving an efficient education. The blame for this cannot be put at the school's door, as they appear to be meeting Justin's needs as far as is feasible for a general Comprehensive school. Neither, under the exceptional circumstances within which the family is living, can the blame be put on the mother who is suffering from depression and alcoholism. Normally the parents/parent would be required to attend a magistrate's court to discover why the elements of the ESO are not being met, but this would not be appropriate in this case. The question arises as to whether the fact that Justin has been taken into care on a number of occasions on a voluntary basis should offer the way forward: should Justin be taken into care on a full-time basis, thus transferring responsibility for the ESO onto the Local Authority Social Services Department. As it is the child exists in a kind of limbo in which no one agency, or his mother, is fully responsible for what is occurring to him. He clearly is not thriving within this situation, as his educational problems and initial signs of depression graphically illustrate. Some other action is needed. The case of Justin could be seen as an embodiment of the need for some kind of integrated services for at risk children in the United Kingdom. It was the realization of this need that led to the creation of the Children's Trusts. The Trusts were created in order to keep up with the Children Act of 2004. As the National Evaluation of the Trusts suggests, English Local Authorities and National Health Service organizations serving children, young people and families are expected to take steps to unify or co-ordinate these services . . . .Children's Trusts are the emerging framework in which improvements in outcomes for children and young people are to be brought
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
OPERATION MANAGEMENT - Essay Example It was necessary to determine if it was still efficient as the company had to undergo numerous changes. Liang understood that it was essential to consider the issues, which would help impact the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy and achievement. It was obvious that all the changes should have been made with a long-term orientation. The important issue was to determine, whether the strategy is commensurable with the combination of original equipment manufacturing, original brand manufacturing and original design manufacturing, whether the success of original brand manufacturing business in the international market can impact original equipment manufacturing negatively. The new markets offered new opportunities but also a great number of challenges, the main of which was cultural differences. Thus it was necessary to provide the corresponding quality of service in order to meet the requirements of all the customers in the new market and to cut prices to gain competitive
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Research design exercise on Domestic burglary - Literature review Example In handling burglary situations, these facts need to be examined in relation to the facts of the context at hand (Tilley, 1993). When applied to the case at hand, we can identify the increase in assets in the buildings motivates offenders. The increase in student occupancy increases the vulnerable target group drastically. And also, the ease of burglars slipping through the back of the houses makes the student households vulnerable targets. In attempt to deal with these burgaries, Mayhew et al (1976) recommend that there is the need to reduce access and increase risk detection. This therefore forms the framework for the prevention of these student burglaries. In operationalising the research, there is the need to formulate hypotheses. A hypothesis is a tentative statement that is tested for its truthfulness or falsity (Kothari, 2005). So for the ease of doing this research, the objectives will be translated to the following hypotheses: The research will therefore seek to accept or refute these hypotheses. This will form the basis for a choice of either the fixing of gates in the alleyways to impede the escape of burglars and their detection or run a campaign to enable the residents to identify signs of theft and take necessary actions through better security systems like alarms and more secure windows. This will be complemented by data on the total number of residents. This will aid in comparison. Also, the frequency of burglaries must be known. This should show the general picture and also the frequency amongst student households. This data on the numbers of people living in each housing unit can be collected from the housing authorities in the area. Data on burglaries and their frequencies can be attained from the police archives. The next set of data to be collected should be the number of assets each household possesses. This will be complemented
Monday, September 23, 2019
Latin American Financial Markets - Essay Example This situation reached a crisis in August 1982 when the government of Mexico announced a moratorium on the payment of capital totaling approximately $20 billion dollars scheduled for 1982 and 1983. This resulted in a complete suspension of new loans to indebted nations, placing a heavy burden on those countries in Latin America where almost 50 percent of worldwide debt was concentrated. The closure of international financing sources obliged the debtor nations, including Venezuela, to adopt adjustment policies that had a severe recessionary impact. Against this background, the Venezuelan government and the central bank agreed, in February 1983, on the establishment of a foreign exchange control system based on differential exchange rates. This allowed the granting of foreign exchange for basic imports and debt servicing at a preferential exchange rate, while the other transactions were directed toward the free market where the exchange rate was progressively devalued. The goal of thes e measures was to protect international reserves and to decrease aggregate demand, reduce consumption and investment expenses, while generating exchange savings that would permit servicing the foreign debt. These policies, however, affected the potential earnings and future possible consumption by the population. Therefore, it was necessary to arrive at an agreement with international creditor banks regarding the refinancing of public-sector foreign debt, to achieve an important reduction in the servicing burden. The Venezuelan government began contacts with the banking community in 1983, and in 1986 a restructuring agreement was signed. This had to be modified in 1987 due to the fall of oil prices, but this proved to be only a transitory solution until a new restructuring agreement was designed in 1990 in accordance with the Brady Plan mechanism. In this regard, it should be pointed out that 1988 ended for Venezuela with mounting pressures in the foreign exchange market and an increasingly adverse economic outlook. The presence of negative real interest rates gave rise to the inefficient allocation of resources and an accelerated capital flight. As a result, and in spite of existing exchange controls, net international reserves fell steadily and in amounts that fluctuated between $926 million and $4,900 billion between 1986 and 1988. Additionally, in 1988, the fiscal deficit as a percentage of GNP reached 7.4 percent and the inflation rate surpassed 30 percent, which was the highest level reached in Venezuela until that time. Unfortunately, the inflation rate became even worse in 1989, when it reached 80.1 percent, the highest registered until now. The 1990 Restructuring Agreement For the purpose of guaranteeing the viability of the economic adjustment and reform program adopted in 1989, it was essential to resolve the problem of servicing the public-sector foreign debt. The servicing of such debt on average represented almost 40 percent of the value of oil exports between 1982 and 1988, while the interest payments represented slightly more than 20 percent of the total fiscal expenses between 1987 and
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Christian Science Essay Modern day America is home to many Protestant groups, most of which had their foundation largely influenced by 19th century Protestantism in the region. During the period, irresistible dynamism rocked American Protestant groups, coinciding with an epoch in which the American society readily allowed the founding of new churches and religious movements. Amid growing revivalism and much freedom to develop, the 19th century also saw mounting interest in millennialism and the rise of Adventism. All these resulted in new Protestant groups, some motivated by the looming Second Coming of Christ and while others invented new religious doctrines. A few broke away from existing churches while others claimed their foundation in new revelations. Among the key churches founded then include the JehovahÃ¢â¬â¢s Witnesses, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Christian Science and the Seventh-Day Adventist. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, popular as the Mormons and founded by Joseph Smith, was among the first churches to be formed. In his boyhood, Smith experienced visions via which he was advised against joining existing churches, and told he would be active in restoring true Christianity. In 1823, he was guided by a heavenly messenger named Moroni to a hill in New York, where he discovered strange writing covering two thin golden plates. His translation of the writing, aided by Moroni, is now the Book of Mormon and is based on ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings. Mormons deem their faith akin to that founded by Jesus in North America. Although they accept the influence of the old and new testaments, their scriptural doctrine includes the Book of Mormon and two other texts, Doctrines and Covenants and the Pearl of Great Price; both based on SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s revelations and sermons. The discovery of the Book of Mormons allured many followers to SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s church, whose membership is now roughly eight million, with headquarters in Salt Lake City. Christian Science was on its part founded in 1879 by Mary Baker Eddy, originally a member of a Congregational Church. As a young woman, she suffered from nervous disorders that physicians and hypnotists could not cure. She in 1866 claimed to have been totally cured after reading a New Testament account of one of the miraculous healings Jesus performed. She subsequently founded the church, which she described in her book Science and Health. Its members disregard formal creeds and doctrines, with some fully devoting themselves to tutor others how to use Ã¢â¬Ëscientific prayerÃ¢â¬â¢ to access GodÃ¢â¬â¢s healing love. Christian Science has over 3, 000 congregations in 50 countries, with headquarters in Boston. This church is seen as the source of New Thought, a larger American religious movement attributed to Emma Hopkins. Emma was BakerÃ¢â¬â¢s student and a teacher, whose students later formed new versions of New Thought such as the Unity School of Christianity, Religion Science and Divine Science and the Unity Movement. The latter has congregations in most USA cities and abroad. On the Adventist front, the Seventh-Day Adventist is the main church. It was founded by Ellen White. White was a follower of William Miller, a millennialist who founded the first Adventist denomination and wrongly proclaimed Christ would return in 1843 to preside over a final judgment. Ellen experienced many visions that inspired her books. And being a gifted speaker, she drew thousands to her lectures, in which she attributed the delay of the predicted Second Coming to ChristiansÃ¢â¬â¢ failure to obey the Ten Commandments. Today, the church has nearly four million members, with half a million living in the USA. The JehovahÃ¢â¬â¢s Witnesses is also a millennialist group, formed in 1881 by Charles Taze Russell. At 20, RussellÃ¢â¬â¢s study of the Bible led him to a verdict that the Second Coming would occur in 1874, when Christ would invisibly return. This was to be followed by the Battle of Armageddon and end of the world in 1914. His ideas drew him hundreds of followers and membership continued to rise even after his prophesy failed to materialize. The church, with headquarters in New York, now has over two million members in 200 countries. They understand Christ to be GodÃ¢â¬â¢s son but reject the doctrine of the Trinity and still believe that a Ã¢â¬Ëgreat tribulationÃ¢â¬â¢ is imminent. Considering that the churches discussed here are just the main ones and have followers worldwide, it is clearly evident that 19th century American Protestantism played a middle role in both the origination and molding of the course, and even beliefs, of numerous modern-day churches and movements. References LD.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Need and Implementation of Change in General Motors The ever lasting truth of the universe is change. People, organizations, markets change every second. This change is stimulated by the environment. On individual level people manage change by changing there routines and habits, which is relatively simple. Change in an organization is complex but follows the same rules, organizations like an individual have to change there habits and routines. The organizations who have failed to cope with the change have crumbled under the feet of time either disappearing or being acquired by other companies. For example skybird, tucker corporation, wirgin, tohatsu, clover, British satellite broadcasting, world champion wrestling, archandor, and most recently general which filled chapter 11 bankruptcy. These organizations were unable to recognize the change in the environment and were rejected by the environment. The organizations that have been proactive and managed change have been success stories .i.e. Microsoft, 3com and us robotics, Cadbury and Kraft etc. these organizations have changed there strategies at the right time, they were the leaders of market change. Introduction to General Motors General Motors Corporation (GM) is the worlds largest full-line vehicle manufacturer and marketer. Its arsenal of brands includes Chevrolet, Pontiac, GMC, Buick, Cadillac, Saturn, Hummer, and Saab. Opel, Vauxhall, and Holden comprise GMs international nameplates. Through its system of global alliances, GM holds stakes in Isuzu Motors Ltd., Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd., Suzuki Motor Corporation, Fiat Auto, and GM Daewoo Auto Technology. Other principal businesses include General Motors Acceptance Corporation and its subsidiaries, providers of financing and insurance to GM customers and dealers. In the early 2000s, struggling under the weight of escalating healthcare and pension costs, GM sought to shed some of its less profitable activities. Toward that end, among other moves, the company sold its stake in Hughes Electronics, phased out production of the Oldsmobile, and discontinued the Chevrolet Camero and Pontiac Firebird. Facing a tough economic climate, GM has nevertheless retained its position as the worlds leading automaker. Models of change management Now companies have realized the need for change and change management. That is the reason many scholars came up with different models of change management. There are some simple models of change and then there are some complex models. simple models are helpful but do not identify the needs of current economy Simple models which follow the approach that one size fits all Lewins model Unfreeze the current paradigm of the organization. This involves understanding the need for change. Then communicating that need to the people. People should be open to change in structure, behavior and thinking. Change the organization paradigm by introducing new theories in the organization. This is a lengthy process as the new method will take time to sink in. people will question the new method thus it is important that there is a strong channel for feedback. Refreeze the changed paradigm. This is the stage where the change is inculcated into the organization and people followed the changed methods as a part and parcel of the organization. Kotters 8 steps creating a vibe of change into the members gather supporters to guide change create a vision explain the vision to the supporters empower people to follow and spread the vision create shot objective or milestones improvements and feedback Inculcation of change by making it a part of structure and system. Complex model which recognize the need of individual organizations. Johnson Scholes and Whittingtons model identifies the variables that the organization faces. Time is how quickly change is needed. This can be identified by the Balogun and Hailys model. Scope is the degree of change that is necessary. Continuity what is the incremental factor History is the past experience of change Skills what capabilities are required and what do we have. Resources which are available for change management. Readiness is the willingness of people to accept change. Power is where the of the organization lies i.e. with management employees, stakeholders etc. McKinsey 7S framework identifies the areas that management need to focus on in order to manage change effectively Structure is the hierarchy and the departmentalization of the organization before and after the change. Strategy is the plans that organization makes i.e. when to compete? Where to compete? And when to compete? System is the alignment of the strategy with the business objective and at what level evolutionary stage the organization stands. Shared values is what type of culture prevails in the organization Style is the leadership style of the management. How are decisions made? Staff is the human resource of the organization. How trained they are and what staff is needed? Skill is the organizations ability to use its resources. Thus measure of the efficiency of the organization. Need for strategic change in General motors General motor is a fallen giant. Glory of the past from being a great market leader to bankrupt company General motors has come a long way. In 1980s GM was the top car manufacturer in the USA until the arrival of the Japanese cars. The Japanese sold cheap and better cars. GM failed to realize the change in the industry and technology and constantly lost market share to the Japanese companies. Even with government support the company filled chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2009. The strategies of the Japanese and GM can be compared with each other and get to what GM needs to do in order to get its former glory. The strategies that have been used by GM are heavy discounting to capture or retain market share. Strategic intervention techniques The purpose of intervention techniques is to improve the efficiency and the effectiveness of the organization. Strategic intervention techniques focus on improving the processes through which ideas are generated and then gain feedback on the ideas. These techniques make some thing happen and also focus on what is happening French Bell Jr (1994). The reasons for interventions can be To gain feedback To educate people To invoke rapid change in the organization. Rapid and sudden change in the external environment Intense competition Driving forces for change in GM Driving forces are the reason that GM requires to change its strategy and align itself with the environment. Few of the forces that pressure Gm to change are as follows Low economic growth in the car manufacturing business has stumped most of the manufacturers. Car manufacturers on government support are making cars at a loss but yet there cars are in the market and cutting the market share of other companies. Japanese car manufacturers are making better cars at low price which is the main competition for GM. Change in technology in the industry has been an issue. Honda and Toyota have advanced in technology at a higher rate than GM. Rising oil prices have also caused the industry to rethink there strategy. Resource implications for GM GM CEO Rick Wagoner has put in a lot of effort to turn around GM since 1992.but his response to change in the environment was too slow. The resources of GM can be evaluated using 5 Ms model Money has been the problem for GM for sometime now but government is ready to help them but they do not have a turn around strategy. Manpower of GM has not been able to generate new ideas which show dulled motivation, and poor creativity skills by the management and other employees. Also GM is stuck in contacts with employees with huge pensions. Minutes time frame for adaptation has always been short for GM and it has always lagged behind the need of time. Material has very special item oil which has sky rocketed. So the price of car manufacturing is rising as well as the price of maintaining a car. Machinery has been the major issue for GM as its competitors have acquired new machinery and processes which are better than that of GM. Due to these factors GM has not been able to change. These are the forces that create resistance for change. Change and stakeholders Stakeholders are an integral part of the organizational paradigm. To bring change in the organization, stakeholders should own the change. The process of change should start from within the stakeholders. To change the culture stakeholders should realize that there is a need for change. Then they should be directed into the right direction. In Kotters 8 steps model for change the role of stakeholders can be incorporated. The model pushes the organization to make its own decision and define its process of change. Kotters model for change for GM Kotter gives a model of change in the organization in which the stakeholders are empowered to make change for themselves. I shall use this model to explain how GM can bring about change in the organization with the help of its stakeholders. Step 1: Create urgency For change to occur it is necessary the whole organization realizes the need for change and puts its effort in making the change. For this purpose managers can paint a grim picture of the future if continued on the same path. Explain to the shareholders the increase in ability of the organization to exploit its resources. There should be feed back from the stakeholders and there ideas should be incorporated in the change process. In case of GM it is not very difficult to paint a grim picture because the next step to bankruptcy is liquidation. The decline in the performance of the company has been a question mark for a long time now. So in GM people are ready for change and stakeholders support the management. Now there is need for discussions so that the ideas and the wills of the stakeholders can be incorporated in the change process. Step 2: Coalitions This is the point where the leadership emerges; people among the stakeholder should take charge of the groups. It is necessary that to identify the key leadership and make them commit to the change in the organization. This is necessary that people who are selected for the leadership believe in the change. In case of General Motors they have to find leaders in order to bring change. Recognition of the people who will help GM to evolve and to accept the changed processes is necessary, if it wishes to make any type of change in its strategy. Step 3: Vision for change When the process of change starts there are many idea of floating. All these ideals need to be linked together if in order to form a vision. This vision needs to be simple and understandable. The vision gives people a sense of direction; they understand the purpose of the change. For change to be successful you need to know the main idea behind the change. For this purpose prepare a summary of the future endeavors of the company. Knowing about the future helps people to support the organization. In case of General Motors the mission statement is quite clear G.M. is a multinational corporation engaged in socially responsible operations, worldwide. It is dedicated to provide products and services of such quality that our customers will receive superior value while our employees and business partners will share in our success and our stock-holders will receive a sustained superior return on their investment. But unfortunately General Motors has not been able to deliver. The vision of the General Motors needs to be communicated effectively through the organization. Every stakeholder needs to believe in the mission statement of General Motors. Step 4: Communication of vision Every person in the organization needs to know the objective of the change. The previous paradigm of the company will produce resistance against the new method. The New Mission statement needs to overcome the resistance and unite the organization on a single path to success. For this the management needs to address all the doubts and problems of the people. Divide the vision into smaller objectives and tie the performance of individual with the achievement of these objectives. In General Motors the management should take responsibility of communicating process of change through the organization. A process of change developed from the input of stakeholders is easier to communicate back. Step 5: Remove obstacles In the process of change, there will always be resistance. The objective of the management is to minimize this resistance and bring the stakeholders to a common platform on which everybody can express their opinion. As the process of change moves forward, there should be constant checks for any barriers to change. In General Motors the inner management has failed to provide change in the organization. The change in GM can be induced from the outside; perhaps a change agent will help GM over come change barriers. Another good way to bring about change is to award the people who embrace the change. Step 6: Create short term objectives For the process of change to work people need to know that it is working. For this management can divide the main objective in to simpler objectives. The management should thoroughly analyze the short term objectives such that they are achievable and motivation. For the achievement of every objective the employees should be rewarded. In General Motors that management need to step up and divide their long-term objectives into the short term goals. The management should make the stakeholders believe that they are capable of changing the business for the better. The most important stakeholder of GM is the government. The government needs to know that that GM can stand on its feet, for it to bail out the company. Step 7: Build on the change The process of change is not complete he unless and until the change culture has inculcated into the organization. Changes in many organizations fail because they do not fully implement the changed processes. The changed processes should become part and parcel of life in the organization. The people of the organization need to build on the changed processes and achieve even more success. The management of General Motors should not stop at making the government believed that they deserve a bailout, but should make efforts to build on the changed processes. Step 8: Change in corporate culture The most difficult thing to do in bringing about change into the organization is to change the culture of the organization. In history many of the mergers in companies have failed because they unable to merge the culture of the companies. Changing the culture of the company is a very long and hard process. General motors will need to change the culture and introduce a fresh method to succeed in an unattractive industry. At this point the employees of General Motor will not be motivated; the management needs to bring faith back into the employees. Monitoring progress and conclusion The final step in the management of change would be to monitor the performance of the company. For this purpose appraisal of each of the activities of the company will be performed. The justification of activity will provide grounds by which the productivity of the activity will be measured. The idea of kaizen should become a part of the activities of the business. The process of change is very lengthy; it takes years for change process to become part of the culture. The management of the organization needs to be very patient and need to prioritize their objectives. In General Motors it is necessary that people accept the change and once the changed processes have settled in there should be continuous evaluation and revaluation. The U.S market has become very saturated thus not allowing the companies to grow as fast as they would like. For the companies to survive they need to use there resources with utmost efficiency.