Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Recommendations on the matter of enhanced interrogation and the War on Case Study

Recommendations on the matter of enhanced interrogation and the War on Terror - Case Study Example Issues The ethical issue that faces the intelligence community is the fact that torture is condemned by the human rights groups; so many people are viewing it as unethical. The advocating of human rights globally is known to be spearheaded by the United States of America; hence, when it is using torture as a method of interrogation, it means going against their principles. If enhanced interrogation is used on a level that is humane and safe, then the ethical dilemma encountered by interrogators will be easier to handle. The ethical theory of utilitarianism stipulates that the consequences of an action are justifiable morally if they result in more good than harm (Mill 2007). If one considers enhanced interrogation in a case where the suffering of a detainee results in saving the lives of thousands of people, then the ethical issue no longer presents itself. It is important to note that most terrorists are followers of Islam; hence they view giving information as betraying their faith , making them impermeable by ordinary interrogation methods. This makes it hard for the intelligence community to follow regulations set by the United Nations on how uninformed combatants should are being treated. For instance subjecting them to physical harm is prohibited (Angelovicova, 2009). The issue is raising constitutional matters. The first one is based on international law while the second is resting on the laws enacted in the United States of America and regulating how military personnel are being treated in the battlefield. According to Article 5 of the Geneva Convention, a detainee’s status is determined by a tribunal whether he or she is an unlawful combatant according to the laws and regulation of the country (Linnan 2008). However, before the tribunal determines the fate of the detainee, the country should be treating and referring to him as a prisoner of war. My recommendation dealing with this issue is that detainee should be subjected to enhanced interrogati on since they are termed as unlawful combatants by tribunals, military courts, and civilian courts in the United States of America (Angelovicova 2009). Moreover, a huge percentage of detainees are people known to have carried out terror attacks on the American soil and in other countries, thus rendering them unlawful combatants. This situation has a wide range of stakeholders. First and foremost, each and every country around the world is a stakeholder in this issue since they are all affected by terrorism. The intelligence community is also a stakeholder since they are tasked with getting information that will help protect thousands from terrorism. The intelligence community wants to be allowed to use enhanced interrogation in order to yield positive results. Options An alternative option that the intelligence community has is to ensure that terrorist suspects are offered deals that are acceptable according to Islamic standards. This is where green cards, good education for family members, good healthcare among others are offered to detainees as part of their plea bargains. However, this should be done carefully to ensure the detainee has been completely turned and posses no terror threat whatsoever. Another option is to ensure that terror threats are dealt with precision in order to ensure that te

Monday, October 28, 2019

Autobiography - original writing Essay Example for Free

Autobiography original writing Essay I had five months to sort out my work experience placement and thought that I had more than enough time in which to do so. Before long, however, I was called to Mr Williamss office, the man in charge of finalising the work experience. I had just found out that I had overnight to get a placement somewhere, otherwise Ill be stuck in school with year 9 for the week. My ideal placement would be something to do with sports because thats my favourite subject in school but I knew I couldnt find somewhere and get a reply all in one night. The only placement I knew I could go without having to wait for a reply was with my mother! My mother works at Cardiff University in the Biochemistry Unit. Im still not sure exactly what she does, but I think its something along the lines of teaching and researching into cells. Before I knew it work experience had almost arrived. It was very tense around the house; I suppose I was excited because I didnt have a clue what I was going to be doing and also a little scared for the same reason. The first morning was pretty easy because I had no dress code, and as my mother is her own boss, I had no strict hours either. Also I didnt have to be polite around my mother, so I could just be my self. I was sort of expecting it to be boring working with my mother but nothing could prepare me for what I did on my first day. My first chore of the day was to fill, empty, sterilise and prepare bottles for other people. This wasnt very challenging, so I got bored quickly. In the afternoon my mum noticed I was bored, so let me do the jobs she hates. Firstly, she made me sort out the bookshelves in her office. This included sorting out a 6ft long shelf full of catalogues, into alphabetical order and to date. The earliest being from 1992. After finishing that, she put my keyboard skills to good use by making me type out the register on the computer for four of her classes. At the end of my first day I was disappointed for not having had a fun day. I also felt worried in case my whole week would be this boring. The second day was a little bit more challenging. In the morning I had to draw pictures on a computer for my mothers poster. This was irritating because nothing was perfect enough for her. She kept on making me change the smallest details, and I realised that day that she was the fussiest person I knew, but the finished product managed to satisfy her. In the afternoon I worked with my mothers friend, Mike Turner, who works in the Electro Microscopy Unit in the university. This is where they take pictures with really big powerful microscopes. At first I was quite shy because Ive never met him before. I suppose I was expecting him to be a shy brainy man that wouldnt really talk to me. On the contrary, he would not stop talking and make jokes. I felt like I could talk to him easy and that made me feel comfortable beeing there. He sat me down by one of the microscopes and made me look at bugs and flowers through it. This was different and I enjoyed it more than my mothers office, although it got boring after a while sitting in front of a screen just looking at bugs. On the third day, I met another of my mothers friends, Guy Pitt. He is a photographer and developer in the university. I wasnt that nervous because my older sister did the same for her work experience and told me he was the best man to work with, and he was by far the best person who looked after me that week because he thought about what I might like to do. He gave me an expensive camera and sent me around town to take photos of anything. I took pictures of Cardiff Castle and animals like birds and squirrels. In the afternoon I met Mike Turner again and took pictures of cells with his microscope camera. Although he was enthusiastic about the cells I didnt find them that interesting and just pretended to like the pictures I took. The fourth day was the best day of the week. I was in Guys hands for the day. I met him in the morning and he gave me the camera with a new film and sent me to town again and told me to return at two oclock. In town I met a lot of my friends and went shopping and took pictures of a burnt building that was in ruins. When I returned we changed the films into negatives in the dark room by using all sorts of chemicals, and let them dry for Friday. On Friday, Guy and I changed the negatives into real pictures. He was very impressed with the pictures I took of the burnt building and asked if he could keep some. This made me feel good of my self and made me consider a career in photography, maybe sport photography. We finished by eleven oclock so he gave me the afternoon off and I went home. I enjoyed the experience despite having doubts about it at the beginning of the week. The best part of the week was working with Guy, he really made me think about my career.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Socratic Psyche :: essays papers

The Socratic Psyche I will begin this paper with a brief account of Socrates. I feel this is necessary for those who are not familiar with Socrates. It is as follows: Socrates (C. 470-399 B.C.) Athenian philosopher who allegedly wrote down none of his views, supposedly from his belief that writing distorts ideas. His chief student, Plato, is the major source of knowledge about his life. Socrates questioned Athenians about their moral, political, and religious beliefs, as depicted in Plato^s dialogues; his questioning technique, called dialectic, has greatly influenced Western philosophy. Socrates is alleged to have said that ^the unexamined life is not worth living.^ In 399 B. C., he was brought to trial on charges of corrupting the youth and religious heresy. Sentenced to die, he drank poison. Of the early life of Socrates, there is little to go on. Looking at W.K.C. Guthrie^s History of Greek Philosophy Vol. III, we can extract some useful background information. Socrates was a native Athenian and he was the son of Sophroniscus and Phaenarete. His father is thought to have been a stone mason or sculptor. Some even think that Sophroniscus owned the stone-cutting shop and was quite wealthy. Socrates^ mother is believed to have come from a good family (378). Socrates was also involved in active military service during the Peloponnesian war as a hoplite. Socrates would to have had the wealth and status associated with this position. Socrates had earned high praise for his courage and coolness in battle. He took part in three campaigns and his feats of endurance were well known (Guthrie 379). We also know that Socrates was an excellent soldier and that neither heat nor cold affected him and that his fortitude was well known among fellow hoplites and acquaintances (Symp. 220b). Socrates was not a handsome man, at least outwardly. He had bulging eyes, a broad, flat, turned-up nose, thick lips and a paunch (Guthrie 387). Socrates speaks of an inner voice, given to him by a god. Socrates said that he did not understand the meaning of this voice, but that it guided him to seek the truth, the just, what he felt were virtuous. This inner voice propels him to seek the truth, to steer him away from what is wrong. As Socrates goes about seeking the truth and knowledge, he tells people that he knows nothing and understands even less (Apology 31d) I would call this inner voice the morality of Socrates; the innate knowledge of what is right/wrong and what is just/unjust, voices that are mostly negative for people. This voice, though, leads him to seek the answers for unresolved questions.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Biography of Robert Frost Essay -- American Poets Robert Frost Biograp

â€Å"Rightly or wrongly, Robert Frost has achieved a reputation as a poet of nature†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Gerber 155). Yes, Frost does use imagery of nature in his poems, but to say he is a â€Å"nature poet† is distorting his poetry by overlooking the poem’s darker complexions (Gerber 155). An aspect of his poems that is frequently overlooked is the main character’s internal conflict. In â€Å"The Road Not Taken† and â€Å"Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening† characters are faced with an inner conflict metaphorically described by nature. In these two poems Frost uses nature to hide the reality of how self-conscious the main character actually is. Robert Frost was born in San Francisco, California on March 26, 1874. When his father died in 1885 he moved to Massachusetts with his mom and sister (Sweeny and Lindroth 5). He spent his whole life in the Massachusetts area. â€Å"Frost attended high school in that state, and then Dartmouth College, but remained less than one semester† (Michalowski). At the age of thirty-eight Frost decided to move him and his family to England. While in England his first book, A Boy’s Will, was published in 1913. A few years later he returned to America where his second book, North of Boston, was published (Michalowski). Although he spent three years of his life in England, â€Å"†¦little of his verse reflects any specific English imagery† (Sweeny and Lindroth 11). Massachusetts and other New England areas were the setting for the majority of Frost’s poetry. The nature in the New England area played a big role in his life and influenced his poetry a lot (Sweeny and Lindroth 7). â€Å"Nine generations of New Englanders had produced Robert Frost, and he in turn produced in his poetry a distillation of all that is New Engla... ...chusetts. 1982 Michalowski, Jay. â€Å"Biography of Robert Frost†. The Robert Frost Web Page. 3 May 2015 Richardson, Mark â€Å"Robert Frost† Modern American Poetry. 5 April 2015. Sweeny, John David and Lindroth, James. The Poetry of Robert Frost. New York: Monarch Press, 1965 Van Doren, Mark. â€Å"Robert Frost’s America: June 1951† The Atlantic Online. 5 April 2015. The Atlantic Monthly Wakefield, Richard. â€Å"Thomas Eakins and Robert Frost: â€Å"To be a natural man in a man-made world.† Proquest Online. 5 April 2015. =20&Sid=3&Button.x=0&Button.y=0&TS=1049559631&Button.x=0&Button.y=0&TS=1049560082

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Lord of the Flies as an Allegory Essay

The Lord of the Flies if read at face value can be interpreted as short book about the struggle to survive on a deserted island and its physical and psychological impacts on its inhabitants. But when the reader looks deeper, they see a novel that is an allegory that is filled with rich and detailed symbolism in almost all aspects of the book. An allegory is defined a type of writing that presents abstract ideas or moral principals in the form of symbolic characters, events, or objects. â€Å"The theme is an attempt to trace the defects of society back to the defects of human nature† (Golding 204). The novel begins as our protagonist wanders along the beach. Ralph represents leadership, order, and civilization for the island. He uses his power for the good of the people, especially to protect the â€Å"littluns.† The littluns represent the people ruled by a government. In their case, the â€Å"bigguns† (the older boys), take advantage of the little boys and soon neglect them entirely. As the conch was blown â€Å"A deep harsh note boomed under the palms, spread through the intricacies of the forest and echoed back from the pink granite of the mountain† (Golding 17). Giving off a mighty sound, the conch also possessed the qualities of authority, unity, and power. When the society is formed, the boy who holds the conch is the only one allowed to speak. Jack first instituted this when he said â€Å"I’ll give the conch to the next person to speak† (Golding 33). As the story progresses, the conch looses its power and influence over the children and is eventually crushed when Piggy is trampled by a boulder. This marks the end of any democratic and civilized society on the island. Piggy represents intelligence and mortality. He acts with reason like a grownup would in his situation. Besides acting like a parent figure, Piggy also provides leadership before and after the tribe is split in half. â€Å"But nobody else understands that about the fire. If someone threw you a rope when you were drowning. If a doctor said take this because if you don’t take  it you’ll die- you would, wouldn’t you? Can’t they understand? Without the smoke signal we’ll die here?† (Golding 139). The signal fire is another symbol that changes to reflect the downward spiral of the children. The fire was instituted by Ralph and Piggy as an attempt to draw attention in hopes of rescue. The fire can be seen as a connection to civilization and as civilization itself. When the fire burns well at a normal pace, the island is at peace. â€Å"We’ve got no fire. That thing just sits up thereÆ’{ we’ll have to stay here† (Golding 129). But when the fire is out, the boys seen to loose interest in civilization and revert to primitive, savage beings, which cause problems for the fragile island society. Oddly the fire that brings about the boy’s rescue is not the signal fire, but a forest fire started by Jack to drive Ralph out into the open. The fire symbolizes power and the leadership of the tribe, as it provides warmth and heat for cooking. When Jack gains the ability to make fire, he seizes control of the tribe. Piggy’s glasses allow for the creation of all fire on the island. The glasses symbolize science and intelligence and their impacts on society. The glasses also play a pivotal role in the foreshadowing of the chaos that will eventually ensue on the island. â€Å"Jack smacked Piggy’s head. Piggy’s glasses flew off and tinkled on the rocks. Piggy cried out in terror: ‘My specs'† (Golding 71). The breaking of Piggy’s glasses can be considered the start of the events that will cause the island to descend into complete and inescapable chaos led by Jack’s anarchy. Jack Merridew represents a thirst for power and savagery comparable to primal instincts. Jack uses his power for pleasure only, slowly evolving into a total dictator by the time the tribe splits. â€Å"There isn’t a tribe for you anymore! I’m chief† (Golding 181). Jack cannot accept compromises in his authority and systematically takes part in, if not responsible for, the deaths of those who oppose him in his path to power. Jack uses the beast as a means to hunt more often and later gain power. The beast is nothing but the evil and primal instincts imbedded deep within all of us. Everyone on the island is afraid of it, while in reality it is simply does not exist. It appears that the more the boys act savagely, the more real the beast becomes. Soon the boys start to worship the beast and leave offerings to the beast. This head is for the beast. It’s a gift† (Golding 137). The lord of the flies is the gift left for the beast. It’s a bloody pig’s head on a stick. The lord of the flies is a physical manifestation of evil who invokes the inner beast within us all. When Simon speaks to the lord of the flies, its true nature is revealed. â€Å"You knew, didn’t you? I’m part of you† (Golding 143). Throughout the story Golding uses his characters, objects and events as symbols to get a deeper meaning across. The book weaves a compelling tale of optimism against the darkest side of human evil. Even though the novel shows that evil in every person exists, the basic human goodness still appears to prevail when all is said and done. The Lord of the Flies is truly a modern classic with a message for everyone.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Delaware River essays

The Delaware River essays The Delaware River and the Calima Lake are the two places that make me feel so happy when I remember the moments I have spent there with members of my family and friends. While my family and I were going to the Lake, we appreciated a variety of nice views, we saw field crops, farms, country houses, farm animals, etc. The driving time to the Calima Lake took approximately one and a half hours from home. Although, both places bring me very good memories, we enjoyed more driving to the Calima Lake. The driving time to the Delaware River is almost the same as the one to the Calima Lake with the difference that the views are much less enjoyable. We only saw mountains and edifications. The Calima Lake had recreation centers and very comfortable hotels near it where we were able to stay at, unlike the Delaware River there are not these types of facilities. The Calima Lake winds make it the best place in Colombia for the practice of water sports like windsurfing and water skiing. The Lake is even used for tournaments and international competitions. On the other hand, at the Delaware River boating and fishing are the only sports allowed. People from different places including tourists from different countries visited the Calima Lake to attend the windsurfing competitions and also for recreation purposes. Similarly, at the Delaware River many people visit that place looking to spend a whole day recreating and having fun. Finally, these places are really beautiful and nice, because they provide an enjoyable and relaxing day to all their visitors. ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Role of Women in Deir El Medina essays

Role of Women in Deir El Medina essays The Egyptian workmans city known as Deir El-Medina existed from the 18th Dynasty, founded to facilitate the creators of the Royal Tombs of the Valley of the Kings and their families. The images of ancient slaves that are seared in to modern consciousness see them as tortured labourers, driven by the iron fist of their Pharaoh, however the inhabitants of Deir El-Medina were the contrary, living prosperous and free lives. Deir El-Medina which translates in Arabic to Monastery of the King , is one of the most well preserved ancient settlement of Egypt and was a highly skilled community of craftsmen who passed their enterprise from father to son. Whilst the majority of those who worked in the Royal tombs were men, a lot of the time the community was of women and they maintained a strong and significant role in the running of the city. Egyptian women were among the most respected and privileged of their time, living in a supposed egalitarian society. Evident in many of the ostraca and papyri records is the fact that women had superior legal rights in comparison to other working women around the world. Incidents of women presenting cases before their superiors and exercising their legal freedom are being continually discovered and translated. Among the recent examples is a papyri from the late middle kingdom including a copy of a case brought by a woman against her father's estate, demonstrating a 'married woman enjoying a completely independent legal personality'. Another example was in the literary text entitled "The Instructions of the (Vizier) Ptahhotep," preserved in Middle Kingdom, this stated: Do not contend with her in court. Keep her from power, restrain herher eye is her storm when she gazes. Thus will you make her stay in your house. This reference to contending with one's wife in court clearly indicates that women had legal rights and were willing to fight for them Legally a woman co...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Biography of Robert Cavelier de la Salle, Explorer

Biography of Robert Cavelier de la Salle, Explorer Robert Cavelier de la Salle (November 22, 1643–March 19, 1687) was a French explorer credited with claiming Louisiana and the Mississippi River Basin for France. In addition, he explored much of the Midwest region of what would become the United States as well as portions of Eastern Canada and the Great Lakes. On his last voyage, his attempt to set up a French colony at the mouth of the Mississippi River met with disaster. Fast Facts: Robert Cavelier de la Salle Known For: Claiming the Louisiana Territory for FranceAlso Known As: Renà ©-Robert Cavelier, sieur de La SalleBorn: Nov. 22, 1643  in Rouen, FranceParents: Jean Cavelier, Catherine GeesetDied: March 19, 1687 near  the Brazos River  in what is now Texas Early Life Robert Cavelier de la Salle was on November 22, 1643, in Rouen, Normandy, France, into a wealthy merchant family. His father was Jean Cavelier, and his mother was Catherine Geeset. He attended Jesuit schools as a child and adolescent and decided to give up his inheritance and take the vows of the Jesuit Order in 1660 to start the process of becoming a Roman Catholic priest. By age 22, however, La Salle found himself attracted to adventure. He followed his brother Jean, a Jesuit priest, to Montreal, Canada (then called New France), and resigned from the Jesuit order in 1967. Upon his arrival as a colonist, La Salle was granted 400 acres of land on the Island of Montreal. He named his land Lachine, reportedly because it means China in French; La Salle spent much of his life trying to find a route through the New World to China. Exploration Begins La Salle issued land grants of Lachine, set up a village, and set out to learn the languages of the native people living in the area. He quickly acquired the language of the Iroquois, who told him of the Ohio River, which they said flowed into the Mississippi. La Salle believed that the Mississippi flowed into the Gulf of California and from there, he thought, he would be able to find a western route to China. After receiving permission from the governor of New France, La Salle sold his interests in Lachine and began planning an expedition. La Salles first expedition began in 1669. During this venture, he met Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette, two white explorers, in Hamilton, Ontario. La Salles expedition continued from there and eventually reached the Ohio River, which he followed as far as Louisville, Kentucky before he had to return to Montreal after several of his men deserted. Two years later, Joliet and Marquette succeeded where La Salle had failed when they navigated the upper Mississippi River. Upon his return to Canada, La Salle oversaw the building of Fort Frontenac,  on the eastern coast of Lake Ontario in present-day Kingston, Ontario, which was intended as a station for the areas growing fur trade. The fort, completed in 1673, was named after Louis de Baude Frontenac, the governor-general of New France. In 1674, La Salle returned to France to gain royal support for his land claims at Fort Frontenac. He was granted support and a fur trade allowance, permission to establish additional forts in the frontier, and a title of nobility. With his newfound success, La Salle returned to Canada and rebuilt Fort Frontenac in stone. Second Expedition On Aug. 7, 1679, La Salle and Italian explorer Henri de Tonti set sail on Le Griffon, a ship he had built that became the first full-size sailing ship to travel the Great Lakes. The expedition was to begin at Fort Conti at the mouth of the Niagara River and Lake Ontario. Before the voyage, La Salles crew brought in supplies from Fort Frontenac, avoiding Niagara Falls by using a portage around the falls established by Native Americans and carrying their supplies into Fort Conti. La Salle and Tonti then sailed Le Griffon up Lake Erie and into Lake Huron to Michilimackinac, near the present-day Straits of Mackinac in Michigan, before reaching the site of todays Green Bay, Wisconsin. La Salle then continued down the shore of Lake Michigan. In January 1680, he built Fort Miami at the mouth of the Miami River, now the St. Joseph River, in todays St. Joseph, Michigan. La Salle and his crew spent much of 1680 at Fort Miami. In December, they followed the river to South Bend, Indiana, where it joins the Kankakee River, then along this river to the Illinois River, establishing Fort Crevecoeur near what is today Peoria, Illinois. La Salle left Tonti in charge of the fort and returned to Fort Frontenac for supplies. While he was gone, Fort Crevecoeur was destroyed by mutinying soldiers. Louisiana Expedition After assembling a new crew including 18 Native Americans and reuniting with Tonti, La Salle began the expedition he is most known for. In 1682, he and his crew sailed down the Mississippi River. He named the Mississippi Basin La Louisiane in honor of King Louis XIV. On April 9, 1682, La Salle placed an engraved plate and a cross at the mouth of the Mississippi River, officially claiming the Louisiana Territory for France. In 1683 La Salle established Fort St. Louis at Starved Rock in Illinois and left Tonti in charge while he returned to France to resupply. In 1684, La Salle set sail from Europe to establish a French colony on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth of the Mississippi River. Disaster The expedition started with four ships and 300 colonists, but in an extraordinary run of bad luck during the journey, three of the ships were lost to pirates and shipwreck. The remaining colonists and crew landed in Matagorda Bay, in present-day Texas. Due to navigational errors, La Salle had overshot his planned landing spot, Apalachee Bay near the northwestern bend of Florida, by hundreds of miles. Death They established a settlement near what became Victoria, Texas, and La Salle began searching overland for the Mississippi River. In the meantime, the last remaining ship, La Belle, ran aground and sank in the bay. On his fourth attempt to locate the Mississippi, 36 of his crew mutinied and on March 19, 1687, he was killed. After his death, the settlement lasted only until 1688, when local Native Americans killed the remaining adults and took the children captive. Legacy In 1995, La Salles last ship, La Belle, was found at the bottom of Matagorda Bay on the Texas coast. Archaeologists began a decades-long process of excavating, recovering, and conserving the ships hull and more than 1.6 million well-preserved artifacts, including crates and barrels of  items intended to support a new colony and supply a military expedition into Mexico: tools, cooking pots, trade goods, and weapons. They provide remarkable insights into the strategies and supplies that were used to establish colonies in 17th century North America.   The preserved hull of La Belle and many recovered artifacts are displayed in the Bullock Texas State History Museum in Austin. Among La Salles other important contributions was his exploration of the Great Lakes region and the Mississippi Basin. His claiming of Louisiana for France contributed to distinctive physical layouts of cities in the far-ranging territory and to the culture of its residents. Sources Renà ©-Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle: French Explorer. Encyclopaedia Britannica.Rene-Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle.à ©-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle  Biography. Belle: The Ship That Changed History.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Application essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Application - Essay Example I will always look for a constant improvement in order to improve efficiency and productivity of the company. I was inspired by fashion giants like H&M , Zara, And Uniqlo and I am determined to make reputable company in working in theh field of retailing. Thus, when I came to the USA, I decided to pursue a degree in B.S. as a way of fulfilling my childhood dream. However, moving to the US had its challenges. At first, I experienced the challenge of transferring from high school to college. Nevertheless, I overcame the challenges. Thus, transferring to the U.S. enables me to fulfill my passion for studying business. Another reason why I want to transfer is because I am interested in finding challenging educational opportunities. My studies at Pasadena City College (PCC) had been impressive because of the dedicated instructors who taught me well enabling me to think creatively. While PCC provided me with classes and activities needed to start the journey, I still believed that they were just the basics of my educational career. Indeed, PCC provided me with general courses that lacked in-depth skills for my higher education, which requires comprehensive knowledge other than simply attending lectures and mastering books. Upon transferring from PCC, I hope that I will be able to improve my skills with internships in a recognizable Company. My enthusiasm to transfer is also led by my desire to explore wider networking possibilities. I realize that connecting with other people is vital to achieving a successful career. In PCC, I was involved in community service and organizations such as Alpha Gamma Sigma (AGS) and PERMIAS, an Indonesian community club. By transferring, I look forward to linking my profession with social work by maintaining connections with other students through social events. I believe that building connections with people from various nations with diverse values will make me acknowledge the

Friday, October 18, 2019

The role of the building surveyor in the planning system today Article

The role of the building surveyor in the planning system today - Article Example They provide detailed advice on all aspects of planning, design, construction, maintenance, management or repair of a proposed or existing building project. They also look for defects in, or ways to improve all types of existing buildings and advise the feasibility of possible costs of repair or conversion and the suitability of the building for particular purposes. They also make sure that the consumer rights, standards and other building control regulations are observed both in the planning and construction stages of new buildings or extensions or conversions of existing buildings. They are also responsible to resolve any queries on the building regulations and allied legislation presented by staff or other persons hence they ensure the uniformity of approach and consistency or interpretation amongst members (Sheridan, 2007). Since every construction work, irrespective of its size and volume, has to go through a number of phases before its completion. According to modern concept of Project Management Cycle (PCM), following can be different phases of any construction or development project: Project identification and proposition Project planning and formulation, Implementation and execution Project monitoring and evolution. After the identification and proposition of a project, then comes the most important and critical phase of a project: the planning and formulation of a project. The planning and formulation of a project plays a critical role as the success of any project depends critically upon the efforts, care and skills, that will be applied in its initial planning. Good planning can only be done if one has a very clear understanding of a project objectives, its cost and duration estimation, its impact and... Surveying has always been an essential element and requirement in the planning, execution and completion of nearly every form of development and construction of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history. Building surveyors are highly trained professionals who provide professional services to commercial companies, construction clients, central and local government, private individuals and property related consultants. They are involved in areas such as projects management, their feasibility study, planning, cost estimation and as an expert witness during execution. A building surveyor plays a critical role in formulation of such documentation by providing the basis for all further planning. Either an existing or a context, if a reliable documentation is not available, and then a building surveyor presents a real alternative by providing accurate plan information, by using the available tools and techniques. He collects data about the existing physical features of p roject site and its feasibility. Planning-relevant building surveying includes not only the measuring of the building’s geometry, but also any further information relevant for planning such as qualitative information, multimedia information and structural interconnections On the basis of all information, different constraints and risk factors are determined and analyzed. The planning has been done either to eliminate or to marginalize them. Hence the project cost, its execution, monitoring and evaluation strategies have been devised and decided.

Oxaliplatin Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Oxaliplatin - Essay Example This was developed following discovery of cisplatin in an attempt to reduce the problematic side effects of cisplatin. This is administered intravenously, and till date, no commercially viable orally active agent has been reported to be accepted for therapy3,4. Like cisplatin, oxaliplatin is also associated with quite a few dose-limiting adverse effects, which include myelosuppression along with others5. These are neurotoxic side effects that include sensory peripheral neuropathy which can be dose limiting. The other side effects include gastrointestinal disturbances and ototoxicity, while renal function may be normally monitored during therapy6. In this assignment contemporary literature will be reviewed to address the effects of oxaliplatin genotoxicity on human lymphocytes by using various cytogenetic techniques. Oxaliplatin contains a cyclohexyl and a pentadilactone ring, which will be evident from its chemical structure in a later section7. This has been approved for treatment of metastatic colon cancer in combination with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid8. Therefore, this is a diaminocyclohexane (DACH) platinum compound9. This was considered as a probable chemotherapeutic agent since it demonstrated preclinical activities in some cisplatin-resistant cell lines and xenografts10. Oxaliplatin is an important member of this DACH platinum group of compounds. Its preclinical activity against colorectal cancer has been studied in great detail. It has been suggested that oxaliplatin has a greater extent of cell kill in resistant cancers since therapy with this agent may result in greater resistance to repair mechanisms leading to affected recovery of cancer cells11. This has been attributed to the size of the DACH carrier ligands, resulting into a bulkier platinum-DNA adduct in comparison to that created by cisplatin12. The inhibitory effects of platinum compounds have been ascribed to formation of inorganic platinum compounds in presence

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Recruiting and Selecting the Right People Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Recruiting and Selecting the Right People - Essay Example The advertisement can be internal or external. It can be posted in office bulletin boards or published in leading daily newspapers. The selection process will then be decided upon. The selection panel must be identified and the test procedures outlined. When the applications are received already by the Human Resources Department, they should be collated and forwarded to the hiring units concerned for short-listing. After reviewing the applications, the hiring unit may choose around three to five applicants for interview and skills testing but these applications must also be presented to the selection committee before contacting the individuals concerned. After getting in touch with the candidates, they will be assessed according to their merits and the extent they meet or exceed the selection criteria. The basis for the assessment is the written application submitted, responses to interview questions, performance in work tests and the information gained from background checks. At lea st three reference checks must be done. I find this step important to check on the integrity and honesty of the person and to get an idea on how he performs on the job. Once a candidate has been identified for the job, the other applicants who were not chosen should be notified.

Assessment of myself Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Assessment of myself - Essay Example One has been exposed to leadership roles in group projects and in other academic endeavors that necessitate assessing the talents of other people and harnessing their potentials. As such, one could deduce that one’s leadership strengths include the skill of introspection and the ability to discern the style of leadership that should be applied depending on the personalities of the followers and of the situation. For instance, some group members need to be told only once of their tasks and are immediately complied, as expected. However, there are others who need to be monitored as to their work progress, need to be guided, or even coerced to follow a defined strategy prior to ensuring that the task assigned is fulfilled according to specification. Still, one acknowledges that leadership is a continuing evolving process that could further be developed through training and actual experience. One looks forward to improving conflict negotiation skills, problem-solving and decision-making skills, as immersion to

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Recruiting and Selecting the Right People Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Recruiting and Selecting the Right People - Essay Example The advertisement can be internal or external. It can be posted in office bulletin boards or published in leading daily newspapers. The selection process will then be decided upon. The selection panel must be identified and the test procedures outlined. When the applications are received already by the Human Resources Department, they should be collated and forwarded to the hiring units concerned for short-listing. After reviewing the applications, the hiring unit may choose around three to five applicants for interview and skills testing but these applications must also be presented to the selection committee before contacting the individuals concerned. After getting in touch with the candidates, they will be assessed according to their merits and the extent they meet or exceed the selection criteria. The basis for the assessment is the written application submitted, responses to interview questions, performance in work tests and the information gained from background checks. At lea st three reference checks must be done. I find this step important to check on the integrity and honesty of the person and to get an idea on how he performs on the job. Once a candidate has been identified for the job, the other applicants who were not chosen should be notified.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

CFC's and Ozone depletion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

CFC's and Ozone depletion - Essay Example Therefore, appropriate action especially targeted against CFCs should be taken to reduce or stop the many negative effects of ozone depletion (Callan and Thomas  238; Miller 384). The ozone layer is basically ozone present in the stratosphere which protects the earth from ultraviolet radiation from the sun. In the early 1980s, scientists discovered that the ozone layer seemed to become thinner and thinner, till an â€Å"ozone hole† the size of North America was revealed over Antarctica. The theory largely accepted by scientists for this â€Å"ozone hole† is the presence of CFCs in the atmosphere. CFCs are a family of odorless chemical compounds which are normally used in air conditioning, refrigeration, insulation, packaging, and as aerosol propellants. Chemists found out that CFCs stay behind in the troposphere because they are chemically unreactive and thus not soluble in water. Although they are heavier than air itself, CFCs can levitate into the stratosphere mostl y through convection currents, random drifting, and the violent mixing of air in the troposphere. Once they enter the stratosphere, the CFC molecules separate under the impact of the high-energy ultraviolet radiation, releasing chlorine, fluorine, bromine, and iodine atoms. These atoms are highly reactive, and so hasten the breakdown of the ozone layer in a repeated chain of chemical reactions. ... The thinning of the ozone layer allows more harmful ultraviolet radiation to reach the earth’s surface. Research has proved that exposure of human skin to a certain type of ultraviolet radiation in sunlight is the main cause of basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers. Together, these two forms of cancers make up for ninety five percent of all skin cancers, and are responsible for about 2300 deaths in the United States each year. Moreover, these ultraviolet radiations increase the intensity of sunburns and cause immune system suppression. Besides this, ozone depletion reduces forest productivity for UV-sensitive tree species, decreases the population of certain aquatic species and surface phytoplankton (and as a result disrupts aquatic food webs), increases eye cataracts in particular species, and cuts down the yield of certain types of crops. What is more, the lessening of the ozone affects air pollution by increasing acid deposition and photochemical smog. CFCs, on the othe r hand, act as greenhouse gases and make the earth warmer, thus contributing to global warming (Miller 384, 385). As a result, it is extremely important to keep the level of ozone depletion and the amount of CFCs present in the atmosphere under control. One approach towards the emission of pollutants such as CFCs can be to replace them with other cleaner substances. For example, HFCs and HCFCs can be used in air conditioning equipment and refrigeration instead of CFCs because they have a lower potential of ozone depletion. The pathways by which these substances are emitted can also be altered to prevent them from entering the atmosphere. Old vehicles mostly use CFCs in air conditioning. Therefore, it is necessary to make sure that such vehicles are serviced by qualified technicians in

Charismatic Leader Essay Example for Free

Charismatic Leader Essay This type of leadership holds a lot of power. In both productive and counterproductive respects. The rhetoric employed to effectively carry out charismatic leadership acts as a double edged sword. While it is true that a message delivered in a charismatic manner inspires the followers to implement it with a lot of fervor, but in this same zest, there are a lot of important issues that are overlooked and lots of questions ignored. This entails problems when the charisma delivers its desired results, but they still leave a sour taste in the mouth. In my professional career, I have not encountered charismatic leadership neither in the top echelons of power nor in the middle management slots. However, most of us have been affected, and even wowed, by the charismatic skills of Barack Obama, while running for the US Presidency in 2008. Inspirational rhetoric, exceptional oratory skills and narcissistic excellence were expertly deployed towards millions of people. Perhaps in our lifetimes, it has proven to be a living, breathing example of pure, unadulterated charisma. It was a need of the time and a result of the disillusionment with the last 8 years. But, the cynicism that perhaps was put in the back seat during this process, made a comeback in the last two years, where more and more people have grown disillusioned by the lack of actual, and perceived, objectives being achieved. The overhyped expectations that are, in effect, created by charismatic leadership, eventually end up hampering its own effects, even though the results achieved might be significant. In the spirit of double edged swords, narcissism fits the bill perfectly. Excessive traits of this personality type have officially been diagnosed as a psychological disorder, whereas a good mix of those same qualities supposedly makes a great leader. From my personal experience, there has been a lot more interaction with unproductive narcissists, as compared to the productive ones. Charismatic leadership is an outward focusing theory, but since being confident and thoughtful requires a thorough understanding of one’s own self, unless it is coupled innately with authenticity, there would continue to be major loopholes in its implementation. As is the case with most leadership theories, the situational context of the company or market matter deeply. Charismatic leadership is the need of the hour during turbulent times and thus ends up being encouraged and nurtured. However, during mature and stable market times, charisma tends to be counter-productive and pointless. Also, since narcissistic leaders tend to believe undoubtedly in their vision, not taking into account the ideas put forward by others, it can become self-destructive for companies. This leadership theory, more than others, needs to be deployed with a lot of care and consideration.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Methods Of Waste Management And Recycling Environmental Sciences Essay

Methods Of Waste Management And Recycling Environmental Sciences Essay Waste management means collecting, transporting, processing, recycling and monitoring of the waste materials. The term waste management generally relates to those materials which are produced by human activity and is usually undertaken to reduce the effect of these activities on their health and environment. Waste management is also useful to recover useful resources from the waste. Waste management involves all solid, liquid and gaseous or radioactive substances which are managed with different methods and expertise is required for each of them. Waste management practices are different for different countries of the world be it developed or developing nations. The management is different for urban and rural areas, for residential and industrial waste producers. Management of residential and institutional waste in cities and metros is done by the local government authorities or what we call as Municipal Corporation, while management of non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is done by the generator of such waste. Solid waste Management Plasma gasification Plasma is a highly ionized or electrically charged gas. An example in nature is lightning, capable of producing temperatures exceeding 12,600  Ã‚ °F (6,980  Ã‚ °C). A gasifier vessel utilizes proprietary plasma torches operating at +10,000  Ã‚ °F (5,540  Ã‚ °C) (the surface temperature of the Sun) in order to create a gasification zone of up to 3,000  Ã‚ °F (1,650  Ã‚ °C) to convert solid or liquid wastes into a sun gas. When municipal solid waste is subjected to this intense heat within the vessel, the wastes molecular bonds break down into elemental components. The process results in elemental destruction of waste and hazardous materials According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. generated 250 million tons of waste in 2008 alone, and this number continues to rise. About 54% of this trash (135,000,000  short tons (122,000,000 t)) ends up in landfills and is consuming land at a rate of nearly 3,500  acres (1,400 ha) per year. In fact, landfilling is currently the number one method of waste disposal in the US. Some states no longer have capacity at permitted landfills and export their waste to other states. Plasma gasification offers states new opportunities for waste disposal, and more importantly for renewable power generation in an environmentally sustainable manner. Landfill Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste, and this remains a common practice in most countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly designed or poorly managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of liquid leach ate. Another common byproduct of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobic ally. This gas can create odour problems, kill surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas. Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate such as clay or plastic lining material. Deposited waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stability, and covered to prevent attr acting vermin (such as mice or rats). Many landfills also have landfill gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity. Water Treatment Water treatment means all those processes which are used to make water acceptable for a desired end-use. These include use of water for drinking, medical, industrial processes and many other uses. The goal of all such water treatment is to remove the contaminants present in the water or reduce the concentration of contaminants so that the water becomes fit for consumption. One meaning to it is returning water to its natural environment without adversely impacting the ecology. The processes for treating water for drinking purpose can be solids separation by using physical processes such as settling and filtration, and chemical processes such as disinfection and coagulation and Biological processes if required. In general the process includes: Pre-chlorination for algae control and arresting any biological growth Aeration along with pre-chlorination for removal of dissolved iron and manganese Coagulation for flocculation Coagulant aids, also known as polyelectrolyte to improve coagulation and for thicker floc formation Sedimentation for solids separation, that is, removal of suspended solids trapped in the floc Filtration removing particles from water Desalination Process of removing salt from the water Disinfection for killing bacteria. There is no unique solution for any type of water. Also, it is difficult to standardize the solution in the form of processes for water from different sources. Treatability studies for each source of water in different seasons need to be carried out to arrive at most appropriate processes. Sewage treatment is the process which removes the majority of the contamination from wastewater or sewage and produces both a liquid effluent suitable for disposal to the natural environment. To be effective, sewage must be conveyed to a treatment plant by appropriate pipes and infrastructure and the process itself must be subject to regulation and controls. E-waste management Electronic waste is defined as all the secondary computers, entertainment devices, mobile phones, all other items like television, refrigerators, whether they are sold or donated or discarded by their original owners or users. In simple terms all those items mentioned above which are either dumped or disposed or discarded by their buyers rather than recycling and reusing them is called E-Waste. A major portion of this waste is generated through products like personal computers, laptops etc. According to recent estimates about 50 million tons of E-waste is produced each year around the globe. The USA alone discards 30 million computers each year and nearly 100 million phones are discarded in Europe each year. The reasons for these huge figures are that there are the rapid changes in technology, low cost of the product initially which encourages people to buy new instead of repairing and reusing and also the cost of modifying the features is much more than the original cost. Moreover t he electronic goods today are made in such a way that they follow something called as planned obsolescence which means they get obsolete with the passage of time. Electronic waste processing first involves dismantling the equipment or the electronic item into various parts i.e. metal frames, circuit boards, power supplies, plastics etc. and this is often done manually. The advantage of this process is that humans have the ability to recognize and save those parts which are working and are repairable which includes chips, RAM, transistors etc. The disadvantage of this process is that the labour might often be expensive in those countries which have high health and safety standards. An alternative to this is called bulk system; wherein a hopper conveys material meant for shredding into a very sophisticated mechanical separator which has screening and grinding machines to separate the constituents of metal and plastic fractions. These plastic fractions are then sold to plastics recycle rs or smelters. Emissions are caught by the scrubbers and screens. To separate glass, plastic, harmful and unharmful metals; magnets and eddy currents are used. Copper, gold silver, tin etc. valuable metals are sold to smelters for recycling purpose. Hazardous smoke and gases are captured, and then treated to remove the environmental threat. An ideal electronic waste recycling plant is one which combines dismantling for recovery of its components with increased cost-effectiveness of processing of bulk electronic waste. Reuse is an alternative option to recycling because it extends the life of the device. Recycling Reduce, Reuse, Recycle are known as the 3R of the waste hierarchy. Recycling involves processing used materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution and water pollution by reducing the need for conventional waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, paper, metal, plastic, textiles, and electronics. Although similar in effect, the composting or other reuse of biodegradable waste such as food or garden waste is not typically considered recycling. Materials to be recycled are either brought to a collection center or picked up from the curbside, then sorted, cleaned, and reprocessed into new materials bound for manufacturing. Recycling Saves money, energy, trees the planet Earth. In a strict sense, recycling of a material would produce a fresh supply of the same material-for example; used office paper would be converted into new office paper, or used foamed polystyrene into new polystyrene. However, this is often difficult or too expensive (compared with producing the same product from raw materials or other sources), so recycling of many products or materials involve their reuse in producing different materials (e.g., paperboard) instead. Another form of recycling is the salvage of certain materials from complex products, either due to their intrinsic value (e.g., lead from car batteries, or gold from computer components), or due to their hazardous nature. Critics dispute the net economic and environmental benefits of recycling over its costs, and suggest that proponents of recycling often make matters worse and suffer from confirmation bias. Specifically, critics argue that the costs and energy used in collection and transportation detract from (and outweig h) the costs and energy saved in the production process; also that the jobs produced by the recycling industry can be a poor trade for the jobs lost in logging, mining, and other industries associated with virgin production; and that materials such as paper pulp can only be recycled a few times before material degradation prevents further recycling. Proponents of recycling dispute each of these claims, and the validity of arguments from both sides has led to enduring controversy Recent developments: Jamshedpur Utilities Services Company (Jusco), which is a fully owned subsidiary of Tata Steel, recently bagged the Municipal Solid Waste management contract for Mysore city from the Mysore City Corporation and Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management contract under the Kolkata metropolitan area for six municipalities. Under the project Jusco will construct 5transfer stations and 6 compost plants in the municipalities of Champdani, Baidyabati, Serampore, Rishra, Konnagar and Uttarapara-Kotrung which fall under Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA). The Rs 39 crore projects will be funded by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Jusco offers integrated solutions to municipal waste management which comprises of waste transfer, transfer station management, composting, engineered structured landfills, integrated waste recycling and reclamation, recycling of municipal and specialized wastes, etc. The utilities major also bagged the TPM Excellence A ward -2008 instituted by the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance (JIPM) and has several other national and international awards like National Urban Water Awards (NUWA) in the citizen services governance category for 2009.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Benedict Arnold Essay -- essays research papers

Benedict Arnold The name Benedict Arnold has become a synonym for a traitor to one's country. In the first years of the American Revolution, however, Arnold was a brilliant and dashing general, highly respected for his service to the patriot cause (see Revolution, American). Benedict Arnold was born on Jan. 14, 1741, in Norwich, Conn. His father, Benedict, was a well-to-do landowner. His mother was Hannah King Waterman Arnold. While a boy, young Arnold twice ran away to join the colonial troops fighting in the French and Indian War. When he was 21 he settled in New Haven. In time he became a prosperous merchant and a captain in the Connecticut militia. He married Margaret Mansfield in 1767. They had three sons. Arnold played a gallant part in the American Revolution and became a major general in 1777. His wife had died in 1775. Early in 1779 he married Margaret Shippen, by whom he had four sons and one daughter. Arnold lived lavishly and soon found himself badly pressed for money. He then began his treasonable activities. Most historians agree that Arnold did so for money, though he may also have resented lack of further promotion. Whatever his motive, he regularly sent vital military information to the British and was well paid for it. His wife helped him, often acting as messenger. In 1780 Arnold obtained command of West Point and at once conspired to turn over the garrison to the British. He met Maj. John Andre, a British spy, and made final plans. Andre was captured, h...

Friday, October 11, 2019

Green Alliances: McDonalds and Environmental Defense Essay -- Environm

Green Alliances: McDonalds and Environmental Defense On August 1, 1990, Shelby Yastrow, McDonald’s Senior Vice President of Environmental Affairs, and Fred Krupp, Environmental Defense’s Executive Director, announced that the company and the organization would form a partnership with the goal of improving waste management at McDonald’s. The announcement came as a surprise to many outside of McDonald’s and Environmental Defense; the alliance of the world’s largest fast-food company with one of the country’s oldest and best-known environmental organizations seemed improbable. McDonald’s seemed a more likely target for Environmental Defense’s litigation than a potential partner. Reaction to the announcement was mixed. Many, such as the Wall Street Journal, applauded the decision to cooperation, saying that the alliance could â€Å"break ground in the fight to protect the environment.†[1] Others, such as Warren T. Brooks of the San Francisco Chronicle, accused McDonaldâ₠¬â„¢s of caving into pressure from the â€Å"elitist yuppies†[2] of Environmental Defense. Still others, like Hans Schuttle of the Boston Globe, feared that Environmental Defense was catering to big business and â€Å"watering down† its stands.[3] McDonald’s and Environmental Defense themselves seemed unsure of the direction the partnership would take. Krupp spoke of â€Å"work[ing] together to improve the environment,† but also cautioned, â€Å"we’re always ready to roll out the heavy artillery.† Yastrow likewise expressed cautious optimism about the partnership. In this, Krupp and Yastrow were acknowledging McDonald’s and Environmental Defense’s very different histories and perspectives, yet they were also implying that each had evolved enough to a point where they were in a posit... ...26], updated 8/21/00, accessed 11/16/00. [27], updated 8/21/00, accessed 11/16/00. [28], updated 8/21/00, accessed 11/16/00. [29] Langert, 12/4/00. [30], accessed 11/16/00. [31] Livesey, p. 5 [32] Livesey, p. 11 [33] Langert, 12/4/00. [34], accessed 12/7/00. [35], accessed 11/23/00. [36] National Resources Defense Council website,, accessed 11/14/00. [37], accessed 11/23/00.

Alcohol and Energy Drinks

In recent years, researchers have begun to focus attention on an emerging trend of consuming energy drink mixed with alcohol AmED. Consumption of AmED is thought to have a correlation with high-risk behavior and negative effects on the consumer. Several research articles have examined the various facets of this practice. Some of the points of consideration that have been researched include the motivations behind consuming AmED, the effects of consuming AmED on alcohol consumption and the likelihood of engaging in risk taking behaviors after consuming AmED compared to alcohol alone.This literature review will examine the following four articles in an attempt to explore this area of research. Energy drinks are beverages that boast the ability to provide the consumer with an increase in energy. Energy drinks frequently contain large amounts of caffeine. The upper daily recommended limits for an adult in regards to caffeine is XXX. Levels of caffeine can be up to 300mg per serving. A 6oz coffee contains 100mg. The caffeine from energy drinks is known to have a stimulating effect on the nervous system. Many brands of energy drinks contain additional chemicals including plant-based stimulants (guarana and yerba mate).The effect of these on the body is not well understood as there has been little research. Simple sugars such as glucose and fructose are also found in some energy drinks. Other potential ingredients include glucronolacteone (a naturally occurring metabolite), amino acids (taurine, carnitine and creatine), herbs (Ginko Biloba and ginseng) and vitamins. In a research paper by Peacock and Bruno (2012a), patterns of use and motivations behind the consumption of AmED were examined. The focus of this investigation was to examine the motivation of participants to consume AmED through self-reporting techniques in the form of an online questionnaire.The sample of 400 participants aged 18-35 years who had reportedly consumed AmED in the past 6 months. The results of the study indicated that 75% of participants used AmED for energetic purposes, 50% reporting use to extend their stay at a public venue, 60% claimed they were motivated by situational circumstances, such as mixed drinks containing ED, 40% reported sharing AmED with a companion, 20% used AmED to mask the flavor of alcohol, 50% of the sample reported using AmED to have more fun and only 33% reported consumingAmED to get more drunk Peacock al et (2012a). In addition to taste and situational reasons, the participants in this study appeared to be motivated by functional and hedonistic outcomes. Only a small number of participants being motivated by the desire to increase the level of drunkenness or experience similar effects to elicit drugs. A study conducted by O’Brian, McCoy, Rohdes, Wagoner and Wolfson (2008), where by responses from 4,271were recorded via a web based survey.Participants who consumed AmED in the past 30 days reported consuming significantly more alcohol in a typical drinking session as well as reporting more drinking sessions than those who did not consume AmED O’Brian et al. (2008). AmEd consumers also reported episodes of weekly drunkenness and among the sample who reported consuming AmED a single drinking session consumed 36% more than students who didn’t not report consumption of AmEd.The results of Peacock et al.  (2012b) indicate that although risk taking behaviors occurred during sessions of consumption of both alcohol and risk taking behavior that occurred with AmED was statistically less than the risk taking behaviors that occurred in alcohol alone sessions. However consumption of AmEd did result in higher negative physiological and psychological outcomes than those reported from consuming alcohol. Verster, Aufricht and Alford (2012), conducted a review of articles of articles relating to the consumption of AmED.It was revealed through a critique of multiple correlational studies that there are currently insuff icient properly controlled studies to draw any firm conclusions regarding the effects of AmED. Conclusions reached in their report were that only a minority of the student population occasionally consumes AmED Vester (2012). Research also suggested some evidence that AmED may result in an increase in some aspects of alcohol- induced performance impairment.There is no consistent evidence that alcohol alters perceived levels of intoxication, no evidence that consumption of ED causes an increase in alcohol consumption, no direct evidence exists to suggest that ED is linked to drug and alcohol dependence or abuse. A personality predisposed to higher levels of risk taking behavior may be the primary reason for increasing alcohol and drug abuse and that AmED may be a component of that lifestyle. The literature available relating to AmED consumption is insufficient.Presently there is an insufficient amount of evidence to link the consumption of AmED to an increase in risk taking behavior, increase in consumption of alcohol or negative effects on health. To understand the true effects of AmED further research is required. To draw more concrete conclusions about the effect of AmED there is a need for more complex and properly controlled clinical studies need to be undertaken. Research design needs to explore relationships with a within subject design whereby the relationship between the ingestion of AmED and the consumption of alcohol is further explored and documented.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Film Reveiew – American Beauty

I chose this film due to its difference to conventional filmmaking, as instead of glorifying the main characters, the area and plot, it shows fault and illustrates the main characters as sad and unhappy. I chose to do this review on the opening minutes of the film describing in detail the camera shots and plot, as it would seem to the viewer watching for the first time. The opening scene is a medium shot of the main character's daughter lying on a bed talking. The screen is fuzzy, to give the impression of looking through a video camera. The daughter is talking to someone behind the camera, giving the impression of talking to the viewer or audience. She is talking about how much she dislikes and hates her father (Lester, the main character). This gives the impression of watching a personal film and the viewer is involved, as it appears at first that the character is talking to the audience until the hidden person filming speaks. The scene ends when the character behind the camera offers to kill the girl's father. The screen goes blank and the film title appears in medium red print on a black background, central to the screen. This sudden change from shot is to represent the plot to end a life, as the transition to a blank black screen. The next shot after the title is a top shot of a typical suburban American street on a slow zoom in towards the road. There is a narrative, male voice over of the main character Lester, describing his death. This would appear to fit with the previous scene of the daughter talking about murdering her father This creates a feeling of curiosity and suspense throughout the film, for the viewer, who is waiting to see what could have created such a gap between father and daughter. This effect of giving away the ending in the first scene is very effective in creating constant suspense throughout the film up to the dramatic climax. It has been used in many films and plays including William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet. Gradually when the camera zooms in the shot switches to a bird's eye view of the main character lying in his bed, alone. This first shot of him shows him as lonely or incomplete even though he has a family. The camera then changes to a close up of his face, which appears sad and disorientated, further showing his dislike for his current lifestyle. There is then a jump cut to a pair of slippers on the floor next to the bed, being filmed from under the bed. This shot represents an ordered and scheduled lifestyle as the slippers must have been placed neatly next to the bed the previous night. The next frame switches to a medium long shot of the main character (Lester) masturbating in the shower. The effect of this is to shock the audience yet at the same time inspire pity at his frustrated and dull life as he continues to narrate over the film about himself, showing little embarrassment. The next scene is a close up of a Rose flower, which is then cut from the plant by a pair of pruning sheers. The Rose is constantly seen throughout the film, as well as rose petals, however rarely alive. They are usually in vases or on show. The roses, I feel, represent the lifestyle of the family. The rose looks perfect and appears very beautiful however it is dead. The family are similar, as they appear to have everything most people want, their health, nice house, money yet they are not happy. The roses are a constant theme throughout the film, I feel to remind us of the families unhappiness. The next frame sees the camera switch to a medium long shot of Carolyn (the main character's wife) holding the freshly cut rose in her hand. This shot represents that she too was once alive but is now dying inside like the rose. All in all I found this film extremely interesting and thought provoking, I would recommend it to anybody who enjoys twisting plots, amazing acting and some of the most brilliant (and strange) characters in modern day cinema. The slow unravelling of the plot keeps you guessing until the very end of the film, as well as challenging modern day society and depicting modern day family life and the hypocrisy of Suburban America.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Critical Analysis of an HRD Intervention (Human Resources Development) Essay

Critical Analysis of an HRD Intervention (Human Resources Development) - Essay Example arning is defined as organization’s capability to disseminate, exploit as well as to create and generate knowledge which is an essential resource and also increases capability of organizations seeking to maintain a cutthroat advantage in present marketplace. There are two types of organizational learning. One is exploitative learning and another one is explorative learning. The capability to acquire knowledge unquestionably gives sustainable benefit for the organization. Organizations which are capable in creating or innovating fresh knowledge and maintain that knowledge as well as to transfer this throughout the venture are more prolific as well as more capable in flourishing than their counter parts and are less skilled at the organizational learning (Carnegie Mellon University, n.d.). The HRD research and practice describes itself emphasizing in three main areas in the organizations workplace which critically covers adult education’s importance of learning or following subjects like career development, organizational development and training and development (Fenwick, n.d.). Along with intervention, orientation holds supreme importance in the arena of human resource development. Orientation basically comprises of the scheduled program that one undergoes when he or she joins a new company. Human resource development orientation basically aims a new recruit to adopt with the organizational culture. The present day organization as well as academia provides increased emphasis upon the orientation segment within the discipline of human resource development. The essay focuses on the requirement and involvement of orientation within the perspective of human resource development. An employee orientation program is very important for making the employee comfortable with his new surroundings and also making them understand the work ethics, culture of the company. In my orientation program, I was given a formal introduction to all my co workers by our HR personnel.

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

''See Assignment Criteria'' Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

''See Assignment Criteria'' - Essay Example It will also recommend strategic moves which can improve Caterpillar’s performance over the next decade. The predecessor of Caterpillar was the Holt Caterpillar company which was established by Benjamin Holt in 1909. Caterpillar was formed in 1925 when market leader Holt Caterpillar merged with C L Best Gas Tractor Company. The merged entity consolidated its product lines, shifted from gasoline engines to diesel engines, and continued to grow at an even pace even during the Great Depression. During the Second World War, Caterpillar’s products were widely used by the construction units of the United States Navy in the Pacific theatre of war for construction of airfields and other facilities. After the end of the war, the company grew rapidly on the back of the construction boom. Caterpillar used acquisition as a major vehicle for growth from 1950 onwards. Its first major acquisition was Trackson, based in Milwaukee. Over the year, it has acquired companies throughout the globe in order to drive up its sales. During the 1980s, the company was threatened by a decrease in demand because of heightened competition with its Japanese rival Komatsu. Moreover, US embargo against USSR also harmed the company because the company was all set to sell equipments worth millions of dollars to the USSR. The results of these losses were lay-offs and labour union issues subsequently. Caterpillar, in response to strike called by its unionized workforce, farmed out much of its production and warehousing to outside firms. It also started shifting its facilities to Southern states where labour laws were more favourable for non unionized workers. In the late 1990s, Caterpillar was hurt by the Asian crisis. It had to close down Caterpillar Shanghai Engine, a joint venture with the Chinese government owned Shanghai Diesel. In 2000, it received loans worth $29

Monday, October 7, 2019

Critically evaluate the statement that understanding organizational Essay

Critically evaluate the statement that understanding organizational behavior is important to organizational success - Essay Example Indeed, this confirms that there is a link between organizational behavior and the performance and success of an organization, only that its workforce can differentiate the organization. This paper presents a thoughtful discussion to certify the fact that the understanding of organisational behaviour is important to organisational success. Arguably, studying and understanding organizational behavior is very important to be able to analyze the growth and success of any organization. Understanding organizational behavior involves knowing about individuals and human nature. More so, it is necessary to understand organizational behavior since the organizations themselves have members and the factors that affect the organizations have an impact on the people involved also. Actually, the organizational behavior enables individuals to perform tasks assigned to them effectively starting with the management to the employees in order achieve high productivity and success in an organization. Or ganizational behavior is actually one of the approaches of management (Fayyaz et al. 2008, p. 5). Moreover, understanding organizational behavior is valuable to the organization especially if the organization has effectively implemented organizational behaviors (Phillips & Gully, 2012, p. 6). ... 200). The key employees’ behaviours that are given attention in an organization include productivity, turnover and absenteeism. The absence or presence of employees determines their productivity and that of the organization since the management is concerned with quality of work done by the employees. Job satisfaction is a very important factor that has to be considered by the managers since it has been noted that there is a relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. Satisfaction also explains employees’ absenteeism and turnover as well as their motivation to perform their duties effectively. Apart from employees’ attitude and perception, productivity is influenced by job satisfaction, ethical optimism, and the kind of relationship between the employer and employee (Gilliland, Steiner & Skarlicki, 2007, p. 200). Managers are expected to handle their job effectively and efficiently and they can achieve this by having adequate knowledge to deal with a n ew workforce, and complications of the new working environment. Organizational behavior enables the organization perform well in that, paying attention to employees, and recognizing their performance form part of tasks a manager needs to focus on, in order to be successful (Phillips & Gully, 2012, p. 6). Accordingly, understanding organizational behaviour is very important in organizational success as it helps in examining interactions within small groups either formal or informal where individuals merge their efforts towards achieving organizational goals (Fayyaz et al., 2008, p. 4). Arguably, the goals of organizational behaviour include understanding why people behave the way they do, analyse how individuals behave under

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Final Exam Paper Operations Management Term Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Final Exam Operations Management - Term Paper Example All the players have a critical role in the creation of quality goods and services. For smooth operations among, the players information has to fro to and fro on a timely basis. Human beings differ in thought, and therefore, to harmonize their roles in value creation one has to manage the chain. The critical activities cannot operate in a vacuum and thus will require other supporting processes like accounting and finance. The overall upper management tries to ensure the critical activities, and the supporting activities communicate seamlessly. At this point, one should understand why operation management is vital. Other than leading one to career in future, the benefits are beyond measurable instrument in the logistics field. First resources are very scarce, and it requires one to make fast and sound decision for their usage. Decision regarding trade-off are a day-to-day activities, the degree of benefit and loss are the determinant factor in making the correct verdict. Understanding and appreciation of the role played by the supporting processes in the organization cannot be underestimated (Oakland, 49). Lead time can be influenced by how client’s request is handled by the finance department. Operation management assists in determining the best model for a firm in it is production. A good example of a model that can be adopted is the lean manufacturing model. The model discourages activities that will not add value to the end product. A firm should always make reasonable expenses, and the expenses should be minimi zed without compromising the quality of the final product. An organization is determined by how it can produce its goods and services. This being the case then the goods and services need to be of the best quality. The push by consumers to have value for their money makes a firm to think of other means to meet the demand from the consumers. However, before an organization decides whether to design or redesign its goods and services,

Saturday, October 5, 2019

Short answer question Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Short answer question - Essay Example Blood test is the most reliable test during the earliest stages of pregnancy. Blood tests reveal pregnancy hormones in the blood stream such as the chorionic gonadotrophin. Urine test can also be conducted at home with high accuracy of the instructions (Choi 2010). False labor is characterized by irregular contractions from as early as four months of pregnancy while true labor is characterized by regular contractions that do not stop despite movement r change of position. This is assessment employed by professionals to determine whether the newborn is safe enough to survive the outside environment without further medical assistance. The score is determined after consideration of several factors such as the heart rate, skin color, respiratory effort, and reflex irritability., (2015).  Painful intercourse (dyspareunia) Definition - Diseases and Conditions - Mayo Clinic. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Mar. 2015]., (2015).  SparkNotes: SAT Subject Test: Biology: Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Mar. 2015]. Wade, J. (2012).  False Labor - American Pregnancy Association. [online] American Pregnancy Association. Available at: [Accessed 24 Mar.

Friday, October 4, 2019

Great response from Arthur Miller Essay Example for Free

Great response from Arthur Miller Essay The Crucible was written in 1953, by Arthur Miller. Miller has said that the purpose of the play is to comment on the parallels between the unfair Salem Witch trials and the Red Scare that lasted eight years 1948-1956. A Crucible is a large container that is used in the production of steel, where they are heated until they melt. A Crucible can stand extremely high temperatures. This is a direct comment on what the play is about. Arthur Miller provided an artistic response to the political climate and he wrote to tackle certain issues such as intimidation. Under McCarthyism, the United States was afraid of communisms influence. McCarthyism came from Senator John McCarthy, who set out to find any threats to the American life and their security. Anybody suspected of communism, mainly those in the entertainment industry, either confessed and gave names of other people or the American Government blacklisted them. Miller, in the entertainment industry, who was protecting his business and friends from any negative outlook it gave, refused to testify to the Committee and was blacklisted. McCarthyism has a great likeness to the play The Crucible. In both situations people only wishing to save themselves falsely accuse many people who suffer. John and Elizabeth Proctor dont have a normal husband and wife relationship, although they are married. They are distant with one another. Their relationship is full of suspicions and clearly has a lack of trust: What keeps you so late? is an accusation. Elizabeth really means what have you been doing or where have you been to keep you so late. The strength of their relationship is tested. John tries to please Elizabeth but she cannot forget her suspicions. John explains to her: I have not moved from there to there without I think to please you, and still an everlasting funeral marches around you heart. This shows that John feels guilt. John Proctor is an honest man. We see this through the way he acts and what he says. John works hard to provide for his family. He has a good clean name in the village and is well respected. However, when the hysteria begins, he wonders whether to expose Abigail for what she really is, even though his name will be ruined. We see that he truly loves Elizabeth when he confesses lechery in order to protect his wife. The audience are drawn to John Proctor. He is one of few people in the play to be truthful throughout, along with Reverend John Hale. Elizabeth is also an honest person. She is a good Christian woman and acts the way shes supposed to as a wife and mother. However, sometimes she can be very cold. She, along with many others, is accused of witchcraft simply because she fired Abigail when she suspected that her and John were attracted to one another and didnt want it to go any further. Even though she has suspected John of lechery and is distant towards him, we know that she deeply loves him. Hale is called into Salem to find out what is going on. He seems a respectful man and gives everyone a chance to prove his or her innocence. He is sort of the plays saviour or hero.  We get to know Abigail Williams through her language and what other characters say. We see that she has power over the other girls and just how far she will go to protect herself, especially in Act 1: I have seen some reddish work done at night and I can make you wish you had never seen the sun go down! Abigail leads the girls in accusing innocent people of witchcraft. Abigail saw the Indians murder her parents. This could have had an affect on the way Abigail is and how she acts. I think that she is able to threaten danger to the girls partly because of her childhood and what she has seen. In Act 3, Abigail shows her power by the way she speaks to Danforth in the courtroom. She even threatens him, saying that the Hell can take him: Let you beware, Mr. Danforth Beware of it! After realising what she has said, she immediately pretends she is in another trance and can see things. This is to allow her to get away with what she has said and so Danforth cant reply to her. There is a great change from Act 1 to Act 3 with regards to hysteria. In Act 1, the girls accuse a few names and they tell just enough lies to protect themselves. Abigail and John Proctor take a gentle lighthearted approach to it in Act 1 and they laugh and joke about it. However, in Act 3 it becomes much more serious. They tell a massive amount of lies and act to make their story believable. Act 3 starts straight away with hysteria. The audience are aware of the gradual build-up because of the characters dialogue. As the play moves further along, the plot thickens as more names are thrown into it and even more unbelievable acting takes place with more and more lies being told. In Act 3, Mary Warren tries to go against the girls with the help of John Proctor in order to save Elizabeth and the other innocents. Mary Warren is already a weak and feeble character and when Danforth questions and speaks to her, he uses cruel vocabulary to fade her. It is obvious that he is on the girls side and doesnt believe a word of what Mary Warren is saying. The girls then accuse Mary Warren of witchcraft. Then she sees that she cannot tell the real truth and overcome the girls lies so she decides to rejoin the girls. To protect herself she accuses John of making her go against the girls and tell lies to them by threatening her. The stage directions in this act build up tension. They add to the drama and the way the girls convincingly act. The stage directions are just as important as the speech. They let us know what is going on and help us understand the characters more. The language also builds up tension. There is a lot of talk about God in the courtroom. Also, there is a lot of cutting each other off. Abigail always tends to cut off Danforth from speaking, so he cant respond to her, this also shows her power. It is almost like Abigail is speaking and saying things just to stop anyone else from doing so.  Personally, I really like the play. I think its a great response from Arthur Miller. There is a mixture of characters and its interesting to see how they interact with one another. I like the play partly because its a true story and I was interested in finding out what happened.

Thursday, October 3, 2019

Bureaucratic organization

Bureaucratic organization 2.1.0 Developing change process using a change models Unfreezing ) Movement ) Refreezing 2.2.0 Stakeholder Involvement in Change Process:- Customers Employees Owner/operators Suppliers Share holders Local communities Managing Change is a structured approach to Individuals, Team and Organizations from a current state to a desired future state. Introduction is a British-based international grocery and general merchandising retail chain. It is the largest British retailer by both global sales and domestic market share with profits exceeding  £6 billion. It is currently the third largest global retailer based on revenue, behind Wal-Mart and Frances Carrefour but second largest based on profit, ahead of Carrefour. Originally specializing in food and drink, it has diversified into areas such as clothing, consumer electronics, financial services, telecoms, home, health and car insurance, dental plans, retailing and renting DVDs, CDs, music downloads, Internet services, and software. Organizational Structure Jack Cohen founded Tesco in 1919 when he began to sell surplus groceries from a stall in the East End of London. The Tesco brand first appeared in 1924. The name came about after Jack Cohen bought a shipment of tea from T.E. Stock well. He made new labels using the first three letters of the suppliers name (TES), and the first two letters of his surname (CO), forming the word TESCO. The first Tesco store was opened in 1929 in Burnt Oak, Edgware, Middlesex. Tesco floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1947 as Tesco Stores (Holdings) Limited. The first self service store opened in St Albans in 1951 (still operational in 2008 as a Metro), and the first supermarket in Maldon in 1956. During the 1950s and the 1960s Tesco grew organically, but also through acquisitions until it owned more than 800 stores. The company purchased 70 Williamsons stores (1957), 200 Harrow Stores outlets (1959), 212 Irwins stores (1960).. 1.1.2 Product Originally specializing in food and drink, it has diversified into areas such as clothing, consumer electronics, financial services, telecoms, home, health and car insurance, dental plans, retailing and renting DVDs, CDs, music downloads, Internet services, and software. 1.1.3 Market characteristics As mentioned above, any super market can be analyzed for its attractiveness to a particular company or organization on a number of different characteristics. Some of the more significant market characteristics that should be considered are actual market size, market growth rate, number of competitors, Intensity of competition, Production level. Tescos UK stores are divided into six formats, differentiated by size and the range of products sold. Which is One stop, Tesco Express, Tesco Metro, Tesco super stores, Tesco Extra and now they are planning to open a Mega Tesco. Where customers will have more availability and they can get everything they 1.1.4 Operating Strategies. There are few competitors in the market so that Tesco has become much more competitive in the recent years. Tesco always changes its strategies to remain No.1 in UK. I Past Strategy. Almost a decade ago Tesco strategy was to beat other competitors prices and become the UKs cheapest brand. Tescos was fully focused on selling large quantities of poor quality products on low prices. II Current Strategy. Currently Tescos marketing strategy has been based around a database strategy driving a huge direct marketing campaign. There customer base (as recorded by the details provided by the hugely successful Club Card Scheme) almost exactly mirrors the demographic make-up of the UK. Simply this means they have somehow managed to be all things to all men. They have between 7m and 8m different variations on the mailings going out to their clients based upon demographic and transactional data. The objective has always been to up-sell to their existing customers through acquiring better customer data and meeting their needs. Now, through providing customers with what they want, the most significant strategy has been aimed at increasing the non-food section by capitalising on the growing need for one-stop-shopping created by an increasingly time-starved population. Drives of changes in todays economy As organizations evolve and come to be seen as dynamic, coping systems, the concept of how they change and methods by which they manage change has continued to be refined. Managing a process of change in an organization can be a highly complex task and is often essential for effective organizational development (OD). This article will provide an overview of the change process faced by many organizations. Different models of change will be highlighted and the resistance to change displayed by many employees will be examined. 1.2.1 Factors of Change Organizations face huge pressures to change, from both internal and external sources, internal forces to change are often as a result of long-term external forces. For example, a banks internal pressure to adopt an Internet banking system, as a result of more and more other banks going online. Internal factors of change The factors internal to an organization that force changes can be identified through a formal analysis method. Most common among these methods is S.W.O.T. analysis. Strengths An organizations strengths, which help identify a competitive advantage or unique selling point, are of vital importance when deciding on changing the focus of the company. Deciding to push certain products or features in favor of dropping others, (like Apple did in recent) years can reinvent the organization. Weaknesses An organizations weaknesses are a real motivation to change. Weaknesses identified internally in a companys product or service, will require immediate attention and changing. Quite often (especially with service based companies), the weakness would be resolved by a cultural change. Opportunities Opportunities that present themselves, like new contracts on other continents will force changes in the company, sometimes as simple as new working hours. With the differences in different customer expectations, modern companies need to remain flexible. Flexibility is a major cultural change that needs to be introduced. Threats Threats to an organization, usually in the form of competitors and substitution products force a company to react. To react effectively companies have to react quickly, which is a cultural change in a company. External Factors of change The factors external to an organization that force changes can be identified through the PESTELI acronym. Political Political factors would include the current and potential influences from political pressures such as unions and national pay agreements. Economic The local, national and world economy impact can force an organization into changing their work practices or even product prices. Social Changes in lifestyle absolutely force changes in organizations (e.g. iPod), but at a cultural level, socially changing attitudes towards work or ethical issues can also have effects on the culture inside an organization. Technical The ever-changing technical world in which we live has probably the most profound effect on organizational culture of all external factors. Technical advancements that allow employees to work from home, working teams to be separated by great distances and for customers to be located on the opposite side of the world from their suppliers. Anything that changes the day-to-day work of the employees has a profound effect on the organizations culture. Ecological The local, national and world ecological and environmental issues that have effects on culture at national levels filter down into the organizational culture within a company. Legislative The legal issues both locally and at an EU level, such as taxes and working time regulations also have effects on culture at a national level, filter down into the organizational culture within a company. Industry Industry changes have a huge effect on national culture. The move away from agriculture into industrial and now information economies has greatly changed the national working culture. Organizational Structure (Bureaucratic organization) Purpose: to track changes in management paradigms from the bureaucratic to the post-bureaucratic to the learning organization model, highlighting core differentiating features of each paradigm as well as necessary ingredients for successful evolution. Design/methodology/approach: the article takes the form of a literature review and critical analysis. Findings: the complexity of the learning organization necessitates gradual evolution. The successful integration of the characteristics of post-bureaucratic firms empowerment, teamwork, trust, communication, commitment, and flexibility coupled with an emergent systems perspective can provide improved understanding of how the learning organization disciplines may actually materialize. Originality/value: linking two traditionally encapsulated areas of research namely post-bureaucratic organizations and learning organizations, highlighting an interesting roadmap for successful convergence of post-bureaucratic organizations towards learni ng organizations The strengths of a bureaucratic organization are: More control over the employees with clear rules and regulations No confusion as the reporting relationships is clear and well defined. The system is centralized and all the decisions can be monitored There is standardization and everyone has to follow the same procedure The weaknesses are: The decision making and all the other processes are very slow The jobs may become boring for the employees The communication has to go through so many levels that it gets distorted. Too much control discourages innovation and creativity. There are too many levels in the hierarchy. The bureaucracy itself encourages political behavior and people try to use other means to go up the hierarchy 2.1.0 Developing change process using a change models Lewins (1951) initiated a model of the change process as one consisting of the three phases which are. i) Unfreezing, reducing the factors and behaviors which maintain the status quo. ii) Movement, creating and developing new behaviors and implementing the change. iii) Refreezing, stabilizing the new behaviors and structure. The first change implemented by the management takeover, which of replacing the HR and Engineering Manager for individuals versed in Japanese philosophy and production methods, sent out a company-wide signal that change could, and would impact everyone at any level within the company. Whether this was intentional or not, this marked the true starting block for cultural change in Byrashi Mouldings. The subsequent changes implemented by the management team, were widespread, with no facet of the company remaining untouched. The changes can be broken down into the following areas -Adoption of Japanese manufacturing systems modernization of plant, which implied by â€Å"two years of rebuilding the plant investment in company, it implies a future -Reshaping work practices cell manufacturing process, industrial workforce into work teams, skills training for all staff Everybody applied for the Team Leader position Flattening and streamlining the organization by eliminating unnecessary tiers of management, â€Å"redundancies, bit heavily into the middle management cadre.† Due to the unprofitability of Byrashi Mouldings, which was commonly known, the voluntary and compulsory redundancies, this created a ‘do or die culture, and assisted in creating an environment where the only viable option for all the employees was to embrace change. All these movements/changes from all over the company are implemented to assist the first stage of managing change, that of unfreezing the existing structure. Computer Room implies continuous learning and change, which is normal for Japanese companies, which do Continuous Improvement equal-opportunity to all the employees of the company. The continuous-training programme gives a stable refreezing stage upon the organisation. Cultural change is not incremental and each stage of the change is important to impact the organisational cultural change. On the respect of the cultural norms of workforce, on the short or medium term, the first two stage takes a more significant impact on; while on the long term, the last stage which establishes a continuous improving system will take a more important impact on. Stakeholder Involvement in Change Process:- Customers: Explain the customers at the shop level, every time they come for shopping they should be told about the change by cashiers or at customer service desk. At the same time toll-free numbers, email or website should be able to explain all the queries. Employees: Line managers should arrange one to one meetings with the staff and explain the change process. Also Free company magazine (Tescos One Team), Staff benefits website, weekly news, daily updates and Team 5 messages should be used to answers all the questions and communicate to everyone in the business. Owner/operators: Company owner/operator explain the benefits for long or short run in directors meeting and also sending them special notes or emails. Suppliers: Company directors/Area Managers have one to one meetings with suppliers and their representatives. Arrange the workshops or training if necessary. Shareholders: Share holders should be able to find information on websites. And also they should be told by their monthly reports and through the Agents. Local communities: Making sure local communities are also on boat by contacting them through their club card statements and displaying banners or posters inside the shops.