Saturday, August 31, 2019

Analyze Africa’s actions and reacions during European scramble for Africa DBQ Essay

When the Europeans scrambled to colonize Africa, the reactions of the natives was progressively more apprehensive. At first the natives found that they could be peaceful with this strange new white man. Soon after, though, they found that these new men mistreated and cheated them greatly, and had superior military technology. Given these new conditions of the relationship the Africans decided it was in their best interest to take up arms against the Europeans and try to rid themselves of the harmful White Man. In the beginning of the European- African relationship we see much evidence of civil exchanges, though the Africans seem to be apprehensive of complete European rule. From Document1 we see that the African rulers signed contracts with the Royal Niger company, allowing the British government to utilize the Niger river delta. This agreement upheld that the British could utilize this land for their economic needs, as long as the African rulers received a portion of the riches acquired. There was an original willingness to compromise with the White Man, but soon after, the Europeans began to get greedy. We see this when the ruler of Ashanti wrote the Queen of England, declining her offer to add the clan to her empire, though they would like to remain friendly with them ( Doc 2). This wish for peace with the Europeans did not last long after this document was written. We see other evidence of European greed for land when Menelik II, emperor of Ethiopia sent a letter to Great Britian, France, Germany, Italy, and Russia (Doc 3). He stated that the Europeans simply could not split Africa because that would upset the strong Christian values of the region, and that the rule of the land must be seated in Africa. Though strongly worded, this letter remained civil with the Europeans and showed no signs of violence towards them. This was soon to change, though. Soon after the Europeans began settling among the peoples of Africa, the natives saw their true colors. One account by a veteran of the Ndebele Rebellion against the British told of how the people were treated like slaves. This account told of violence, derision, humiliation, and rape (Doc 4). Another account from a Mojimba African chief described the British attacks upon the village. The chief recounted that after hiding out in the  forest for the duration of the attack, they returned to â€Å"†¦: our brothers, dead, bleeding, our village plundered and burned, and the river full of dead bodies†(Doc 9). Other accounts of more mild wrongdoings. An Ashanti queen spoke to other chiefs of their Kings being taken away (Doc6). Many of these injustices performed against the Africans caused an uprising in their society; several tribes began to resort to violence. As European violence increased, the Africans began to seek ways to take action against them. Yaa Asantewi, Ashanti queen mother, gave a speech to chiefs stating that if the men did not begin to take action against the European violence soon, the women would begin the fight the White Man themselves. This is quite significant because women were considered second class citizens, weak people who did nothing but the simple tasks in life. The Herero people also were compelled to take up arms against the Germans invading South-West Africa. In a letter he wrote â€Å"Let us die fighting rather than die as a result of maltreatment, imprisonment, or some other calamity. Tell all the chiefs down there to rise and do battle†(Doc 7). Finally, artwork can be analyzed from the uprisings against Europeans such as the Italians. Document 5 depicts the Battle of Adova, where the Ethiopians were successful in rising against the Italian troops trying to take over the region. Most relations between the Africans and Europeans ended in hostile revolutions organized by the native tribes, trying to rid themselves of the dreadful White Man’s rule. Though they were not successful in ridding themselves of the Europeans until much later, the Africans put up a fight to get the White Man who oppressed them out of their land, after he charmed them with his false pretenses. Another supplemental document that may be used to analyze these two groups is an excerpt from the book â€Å"Things Fall Apart† by Chinua Achebe. This work of literature depicts the story of a revered tribesman of the Ibo tribe and his relations with the invading European missionaries. Tracing the relations of Europeans and Africans through the provided documents we can see that the relationship was neither extremely tolerant or violent at first, but it progressively became the later.

Friday, August 30, 2019

My Personal Experience As The Victim Of An Injustice Essay

In my life I have been very fortunate that I have not been exposed to confrontational injustice. Nobody directly came to me and told me that I have for instance, not been chosen for a position because of my skin color, my age or any other characteristic of mine that makes me who I am. However, I do know that after 911 individuals, which look like people from the Middle East and or Middle Eastern names are being looked at very differently than before. Before 911 I was commonly referred to as the â€Å"prince of Persia† in my high school. After 911 I was even by good friends jokingly called a terrorist. Growing I have lived next to an airport and used to take my dog to walk around the Hamburg airport in Germany. We went for a walk at all times and I especially enjoyed going there after dusk because of all the airport lights. Lufthansa airlines has a major mechanical facility hanger on the airport. After time I developed a great passion for airplanes. I would read anything and everything about airplanes. I would make my father take me to any air show that would be within reasonable driving distance from us. I have had spent countless hours studying the mechanics of airplanes just so I could start a career as a Lufthansa mechanic. Once I graduated High School in Germany I applied for an internship with Lufthansa. After a while I received an invitation, for a networking event for all internship applicants. Before I arrived I could have not been more ecstatic about finally meeting individuals who were just as excited about airplanes as me. May they have been master mechanics or fellow a pplicants. After settling in I kept on having the feeling that people were staring at me. I didn’t know why but after a while I felt very uncomfortable being there and couldn’t figure out why until I overheard applicants making terrorist jokes about me. Once I brought it up to one Lufthansa employees, he told me that they shouldn’t have said exact those words but that they had made a great point. He went on  to explain to me that I would never stand a chance of becoming an air plane mechanic because I am Persian. 911 just happened but I would have never thought on my own that I would be connected in any way or form to 911. From that moment on I always became very aware of the way I look and what my heritage is. I strongly believe that injustice has been done to me on that day because I did change very much the path I have taken in my life and I stopped pursuing my dream. I don’t think that the offender has had experienced anything negative or will experience anything negative unless someone just suits him. Even though the recruiter may has not been racist and may just sincerely wanted to help me, he made me learn that I could be excluded from things because of things I do not have any type of control over like the color of my skin. I do have to say though that I have grown personally from that experience and do not let anybody stop me from doing anything just because somebody has a wrong opinion about life, like how people from Middle Eastern decent should not be employed by airlines working on their airplanes. I am fortunate enough that I have come to understand this now but while I was younger and just heard that person say that and somehow confirming what he said in blogs it affected me very much negatively. My personal experience as the offender of justice I think that the biggest injustice I have done in my life has been, to adopt a puppy. I adopted Dino when me and my wife first got married in Atlanta and I thought that we would live the rest of our life there. I also thought that I would be able to start my career in Atlanta within the finance industry. Unfortunately nothing worked out as I planned. While my wife and I continued to grow our love for Dino, I continued to search for a job. I finally decided that Atlanta’s job market had nothing to offer and that we had to move to Chicago. Our new landlord would not accept pets and therefore we had to give our baby (Dino) for adoption. My wife and I had many arguments over that decision. Finally, we did move to Chicago and gave Dino up for adoption. My wife has been very much upset about giving up Dino and to this day misses him. Therefore, I believe that I have done my wife a huge injustice by making her give up on Dino. Looking back we didn’t have to move and we didnâ⠂¬â„¢t have to move in to that apartment. We could have had looked longer and maybe even find a place that would have let us keep Dino but my  rush decision prohibited that, which I didn’t comprehend back then. I must say that I have learned from both instances and therefore become a more mature and patient person. I have learned that although I should still base my decisions on logic rather than emotion I should not totally leave out emotions either. It is rather ironic thinking back, that emotions rather than logic has been the reason why I stopped pursuing becoming a mechanic at Lufthansa.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Ethical opinions on computer confidentiality in health care Essay

Ethical opinions on computer confidentiality in health care - Essay Example The patient should be informed immediately upon the availability of the computerized database. Proper explanations should be given to the patient regarding the accurate and dependable medical data that the computerized database can give in order to support the health care of patients. At the same time, the potential hazards or risks of the computerize database should also be explained to the patient in the spirit of clarity and fairness. This way, the patient will have the freedom to choose whether or not he or she would want to utilize and be included in the medical database or not (Drozdenko 4). Whatever the decision of the patient would be, pressuring him or her to make an immediate choice would be unethical, and so the decision of the patient and the relatives has to be respected. Corrections in the time and date must be marked and stamped because this will aid in the management of patient's health evaluation procedures. Any mistake or miscalculated time and date could be fatal for the patients and their families. The stamping of corrections somehow acts as a precaution during the process of the patient's recovery at the hospital.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Funding report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Funding report - Essay Example Funding for music comes in various shades and forms. It could be in the form of grants, education scholarships, competitions, free music promotion, recording contracts, and instrument and equipment funding. We could categorise the different types of music business funding based on by source of funds, geographical region where fund can be used and so on. In this paper we shall restrict the discussion to the different sources of funding for music businesses available to persons living within the UK. Towards the end of the paper we shall place an emphasis on funding for pop and rock music. Starting with sources of public funding, there are three main government funded bodies that offer funding for music in England. These are the Arts Council England, the British Council and UK Trade and Investment (UKTI). Local counties also offer funding in form of small grants to artists who reside within those counties. With internationalism and globalisation being the drivers of modern economy the three bodies have also taken steps to strengthen the British music brand internationally. Arts Council England provides grants to a diverse genre of music therefore competition is definitely high and success is generally determined by the artistic quality of the applicant’s work (Artistic Assessment n.d.). The Arts Council’s Grants for the Arts is open to any UK citizen or EU citizen so long as the majority of the funded activity takes place within England. However, up to 15% of any grant given could be spent on activities outside England (Artistic Assessment n.d.). The Arts Council also has an investment portfolio for music that includes more than 134 regularly funded organisations. The total financial support given to these organisations in 2008/09 was  £98 million, an amount that was to rise to  £104 million by 2010/11. This portfolio

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

How to develop a culture of safety in health care organizations Essay

How to develop a culture of safety in health care organizations - Essay Example Unfortunately, this culture led to many incidents not to be reported. To combat this problem, health-workers are encouraged to report problems instead of hiding them, so that they can be solved in time. To develop a culture of safety in health organizations, cultures are accessed occasionally so as to make amicable changes where necessary. Additionally, teamwork is highly recommended so as to avoid the occurrence of blame games and negligence of risky incidents. Most organizations also advocate the participation of the patient in the treatment process so as to create good communication system between healthcare personnel and patients (Duke University Medical Center, 2005). Additionally, involvement of patients in the treatment process leads to physicians observing rules and regulations to the later so as to minimize the occurrence of accidents within health-centers. Routine check-up and update of healthcare systems have also been found effective in developing a culture of safety in health organizations. Thus, many healthcare organizations not only maintain, but also update their systems in order to catch up with technological advancements that aid in enhancing patients’ safe ty. Additionally, most health organizations also advocate openness among its employees so as to enhance patients, workers, and personnel safety within healthcare environment (Duke University Medical Center, 2005). Rule of accountability has also been found effective in developing a culture of safety in healthcare organizations. It achieves this by ensuring all the healthcare providers do their respective jobs

Monday, August 26, 2019

Business Ethics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 13

Business Ethics - Essay Example But, never, the vocabulary never so rude.† ( 3. According to Sainz and reports, when she was on the sidelines before the match, some Jet players and coaches appears to have intentionally thrown footballs in her direction. Then, when she waited in the locker room to conduct an interview with Mark Sanchez, she was reportedly harassed with catcalls and rude comments. ( 4. Although, there are numerous pictures showing Sainz dressed in a â€Å"provocative† or sexy manner, it no way lessens the crime committed by the team. It is a personal choice and is part of her job, and that does not give the team any right or leeway to harass her. â€Å"When she posts sexy photos on her website, shes showing off her assets and creating an image of a strong, sexy woman. The two are not incompatible.† (Peveteaux). 5. From the reports, it is clear that Sainz did not do anything wrong or even provocative to elicit the player’s response. She was just doing her job and her costumes was her choice, and so it no way makes any difference to the crime committed. â€Å"When Sainz is in the locker room, shes asking questions as reporters do. Shes not giving a lap dance. There is no excuse for disgusting behavior.† (Peveteaux ) 6. Inez Sainz being a former Miss Spain or a 33 years old or married or being a mother of three children does not make any difference or lessens the misdemeanor. However, it makes the crime more erroneous and unethical, because even a committed married woman and mother, who is charting a career path, is not free from sexual harassment. 7. Yes, female reporters are allowed in the male players’ locker rooms, but after this incident there should be re-thinking on the part of the authorities, team management and the media houses. The harsh environment of the locker rooms was pointed out by "Early Show" co-anchor Erica Hill, "A locker room is a tough place for anybody, male or female, and a lot

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Field trip Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Field trip - Essay Example The selected outcrop is within the Marietta topographic quadrangle. It is located along route 7 in Ohio, West Virginia. In terms of the co-ordinates, it is within Sec. 2, T2N, R9W. The outcrop exists within an elevation of 640, which is from its base. The Bedrock Geology of Washington County rates the outcrop as of Pennsylvanian age. The rock formation is of the Monongahela group. The general rock types that exist in this outcrop are shale, siltstone, red shale, and greywacke. Consequently, the following breakdown describes the various compositions that make up the basal layers: Layer 1 is made up of 0.5m shale which is moss green. It also has plenty of fern fossils and has a covered basal contact. This layer lies at a lateral intersection with siltstone. Layer 2 consists of 1.5m siltstone. This is greenish grey in colour and exists as a composite. It is also covered in fern fossils and has a covered basal contact. It lies at a lateral intersection with red shale. Layer 3 consist of 3.0m of red shale that is largely reddish in colour. This also has covered basal contact and fern fossils. Layer 4 has 1.7m of greywacke that is grey in colour. This layer tapers laterally and lacks the ferns. Its basal contact is irregular. Layer 5 is 2.2m of grey siltstone made up of larger lateral grains. There are no ferns and the basal contact is uneven. Layer 6 has 3.5m of greywacke with larger grains. Layer 7 is made up of 1.5m of laterally layered greywacke. The final layer 8 is made up of 1.5m of grey granulated siltstone. From such a study, various inferences can be drawn from the results, and the corresponding analysis can be compared to pre-existing theory. This is important in understanding the landscape of such a region due to the dynamic nature it has. The hilltops are predominantly made of greywacke sandstones due to their resistance to weathering. The valleys are otherwise

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Gross Domestic Product Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Gross Domestic Product - Essay Example The dependent variable used for this study is the Gross domestic product (GDP) of the United Kingdom (UK). GDP is an important measure for any country because it represents the healthiness of its economy. It is calculated by summing the market value of all goods and services produced within this economy. The percent change in GDP is used to measure the growth in the economy during the specified period. GDP is measured in real prices in order to remove the effect of inflation. The data for the GDP for the UK is extracted from the Economic Trend Annual Supplement (ETAS) database. ETAS is released annually from British office of national statistics (ONS). It contains a summary of the United Kingdom (UK) economic accounts. Field number 2.1A is selected from the database which contains the time series of GDP chained volume measures which is referenced by the variable ABMI. These values are seasonally adjusted to represent the period from 1948 to 2005. Annually linked and weighted chain volume measures better highlight changes in GDP than constant price values. This is because take account of year-to-year changes (Aspden & Person 2000). Figure 1 shows little change from year to year in UK GDP. Therefore the percent change from year-to-year is computed and replaces by the real values of annual GDP. The percent change in the British GDP (appendix B) is shown in the following figure: Figure 2: Percent Change in UK GDP from 1948 to 2005 Figure 2 amplifies the changes and highlights that occurred during the period of the study. It shows periods when GDP positively increased or negatively decreased which were not visible in figure 1. From the above graph the following years experienced major increase in the British GDP: 1973 (7.1%), 1964 (5.5%), 1960 (5.3%), 1988 (5%). The following years also experienced the most decrease in GDP values: 1980 (-2.1%), 1981 (-1.5%), 1991 (-1.4%), 1974 (-1.4). 3. Econometric Model: Regression is considered as a special case of econometric modeling (Wang & Jain 2003). Theory suggests that GDP growth is positively related to inflation and negatively related to unemployment and real interest rates (RIT). The following relevances of these three variables are explored in the following sections. 3.1 The relevance of Inflation in predicting GDP: The relationship between inflation and GDP is a very delicate relationship and still causes much controversy in both theory and empirical findings (Hossain & Chowdhury 1996). Mallik & Chowdhury (2001) examined the long-run and short-run dynamics of the relationship between GDP and inflation. They found that inflation and economic growth are positively related on the long run. They also found that inflation is more sensitive to changes in growth rates than that of growth rates to changes in inflation. Thus moderate inflation is good for growth but fast economic growth feeds back into inflation. Thus too much GDP growth would accelerate inflation rates, which would decrease the value of money more than the value gained by GDP and even more taking the economy downhill as verified by Bruno and Easterly (1998). 3.2

Management & organisation behaviour Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Management & organisation behaviour - Essay Example This book reassures that, success is within the reach of any resolute individual, who is willing to make certain minor behavioral modifications. Primarily targeted at ambitious young adults with self - suspecting tendencies, this book provides ample clarity to all career - seekers on how to do well in their lives. Jack Welch, the author of the book "Straight from the Gut" was the Chairman and CEO of General Electric between 1981 and 2001. He used to be called as Neutron Jack and he was also referred as the world's toughest boss. And then Fortune called him "The Manager of the Century." In his twenty year career at the helm of General Electric, Jack Welch defied conventional wisdom and turned an aging behemoth of corporate innovatin. In his remarkable autobiography - the author taes us on the rough-and-tumble ride that has been his remarkable life. Jack Welch's memoir, JACK: Straight from the Gut, is part autobiography and part business theory text. Welch covers his fast trip from General Electric employee to General Electric CEO, his years in the top job (including an in-depth look at the philosophical positions he brought to and developed while holding that position) and the recent search for his replacement - a search that culminated with his retirement in 2001. In the end, however, JACK is less the story of its author and his theories than it is a love letter to the men and women who helped Jack Welch recreate General Electric over the past two decades. "Straight from the Gut" is an energizing book that tells an American dream story of an unconventional businessman who climbed to the top of one of the world's biggest companies and made it even bigger. Along the way, the reader meets a Jack Welch whose clear enthusiasm and affection for those with whom he worked stands in sharp contrast to his "Neutron Jack" reputation. 3. Charan, Larry Bossidy & Ram. Execution. London: Random House Business Books, 2002. Larry Bossidy is one of the world's most acclaimed CEOs, with a track record for delivering results that has few peers. Ram Charan is a legendary advisor to senior executives and boards of directors with unparalleled insight into why some companies are successful and others are not. The result is the book "Execution" people in business need today. One with a high practical framework for closing the gap between results promsed and results delivered. After a long, stellar career with GE, Larry Bossidy became CEO of Allied Signal and trasnformed it into one of the world's most admired companies. Accomplishments like 31 consecutive quarters of earnings-per-share growth of 13% or more don't just happen. They result from consistent practice of the discipline of execution: understanding how to link the three core processes of any business together: people, strategy and operations. The leader's most important job - selecting and appraising people - is one that should never be delegated. As a CEO Larry personally makes the

Friday, August 23, 2019

How important were responses to the Antique in the development of Essay

How important were responses to the Antique in the development of Italian late medieval sculpture - Essay Example The sculptural styles within Italy received significant transformation during the late medieval period. This period remained critical in the production of some of the most famous architectural styles applicable in the modern world2. Three dimensional sculptures were introduced in church statue, as well as life size symbolic representations of numerous political and religious figureheads. During the late medieval period numerous sculptors arose, significantly contributing to the development of Italian sculpture designs. Nicola Pisano (c1220/1225-c1284) remains to be one of the most notable sculptors to have existed during this period. His profundity in understanding classical roman sculpture style contributed to it being identified as the father of modern sculpture3. One of his most notable works today is the Pulpit of the Pisa baptistery, which utilised different sculpture styles4. This was one of his first works in which he displayed profound understanding and knowledge of classical roman sculpture style. Having travelled widely across the country, Nicola possessed immense knowledge of different cultural sculpture styles displayed in his sculptures. Giovanni Pisano, another notable Italian sculptor also emerged during the transformational period of late medieval times5. Giovanni continued and worked together with Nicola Pisano and completed some of the works left unfinished by Nicola6. The elegant sculptures within the faà §ade of Siena Cathedral were architectural designs of Giovanni. These possessed a blend of classical roman style with gothic style, a style commonly employed and developed by predecessor, Nicola. The continuity of Giovanni’s works appeared to display increased elaboration of Gothic style and less of classical roman style. The numerous works designed by Giovanni displayed his immense skill, leading to it being named â€Å"the first modern sculptor†. Through many of his later works, Giovanni represented the transformation from

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Philosophy in our daily lifes Essay Example for Free

Philosophy in our daily lifes Essay This essay will discuss how can we apply metaphysics to our daily life as students, including activities and philosophical situations that take place through the week. The writing will have a special focus on metaphysics, on how it highly impacts and relates to a high school student’s daily life, by using tools regarding this topic by Alain Badiou, Van Inwagen, Plato, Aristotle and The Matrix. Philosophy is the invention of new problems, however not all situations can be philosophically analyzed. That is why a current philosopher from metaphysics explains in his text â€Å"The Event† how are these situations identified, because currently a very crucial and polemique problem is that most of people think that philosophical situations are constantly affecting us in every single thing we do, which leads most people to mistaken normal standpoints as philosophical situations. Due to that, the author of â€Å"Thinking the Event † has made this writing to help people to stop using the term philosophy wrong. The three aspects that differ a normal standpoint with a philosophical situation are choice, distance and break. The first aspect means either picking to think or not thinking, when a complex and not regular situation takes place, which means choosing to research and get to know well the problem, or leave it how it is and walk away; the second requisite for a philosophical situation is the distance, which is the comparison of the actual situation which is commonly d etected as the truth and its farness from the power, which in regular situation there is no real distance or disagreement; the last condition is the break, which basically is to realize and accept how different is the event from reality as we know it. Cyber bullying and bullying are new problems that have grown exponentially in the twenty first century, because of the constant invention of technology and social networks. The stage of high school is a highly concentrated area of both types of bullying and other forms of molesting, however all of these according to the program of Bullying Stops With Me, one  out of four students is bullied, from which eighty percent of the times ends in physical aggression. To identify if this is a philosophical situation, the three requirements need to be present. The first one is the choice to think or not to, of why the bully is attacking the bullied; the second one is to find the distance between power and truth, in this case the power represented by the bully who is doing this because of any type of problems he has internally, that he projects towards the bullied, who represents the truth that has no reason to deserve the treatment of this teenager; the third is the break, which is being able to differ how bullying by this boy is so far from the ideal situation where he has no real problems with the bullied, who has to deal with the aggressive discharges from the damaged kid. The three conditions for a philosophical situation to be detected have been successfully proven, in a given event in a high school student’s life. This has been an example of a daily problem that many students experience in their studies at school, which after analysis it has been able to be categorized as a philosophical situation. After knowing how to differentiate regular problems from philosophical situations, it is easier to go deeper into philosophy and learn from one of its branches, which is metaphysics. Van Inwagen defines metaphysics as the study of ultimate reality, which shows a brief explanation of the topic, but still it contains a deep meaning in each word that conforms this definition given by the author. One great mind of this branch of philosophy is Plato, student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle, who has deeply influenced many authors and philosophy as we know it today. Many high school students go through a very rough stage in their lives where the image of each person is always compared with the ideal one. These images are created or known through the ones that photoshop editors pick as perfect. They have a huge impact on the lives of high school students, which have created a substantial amount of problems to junior high students such as anorexia and bulimia among other problems because of the authors and editors and the figures that they have created to be the perfect ones and the ones that everybody should aspire to be. Plato discusses the ideal form or intelligible world and its influence on matter. This point taken by the greek philosopher relates to the perfect picture earlier discussed, of how the ideal image of a woman or man should be, which in consequence affects the matter or the scholars on their body, because they  want to resemble to those icons that the editors have created. This point is also taken by the movie of The Matrix when Neo is in the white room, seen as the residual image (perfect form of himself) which can be related to the ideal model that the world has cr eated of the human body, compared to the natural apppearence when he is in the real world, where he appears bold and his body is different. The relation of the photoshop form, the residual and the figure on the Matrix from the intelligible (Plato) world are things that highly influence a student’s life, which show how we are strange prisoners from these images, because these pupils are not common prisoners with shackles and in a prison as Plato mentions on his text The Allegory Of The Cave. Plato mentions the phrase â€Å"We are strange prisoners† because of the uncommon slavery that the world has made us be. This philosopher who lived thousands of years ago saw this polemique, that back then was present and after centuries it still is present in a high school student’s life and in a movie such as The Matrix. The film shows everyone as a prisoner from the program (the matrix), that was made by the machines to have all humans controlled so that they could take their energy. Taking into account this motion picture earlier mentioned, there is a relation between the real lives of each person in the matri x with the prisoners of The Allegory of the Cave. This text is about slaves shackled without any movement, who have been like that all of their lives, inside a cave where they see these shadows and a stories about them on a wall before them, with a fire behind to illuminate these shapes. One day the master decides to free one of the slaves who is taken outside the cave by force. Once the prisoner is out it narrates how difficult it is for him to get used to the light of the sun and the unusual world before him. For him to be able to adjust to these changes he starts by just seeing shadows, from that the moon and at the end the Sun. After his experience he gets back to the cave and he tells the other slaves what he lived and experienced, who later mocked him. At the end he gets to the conclusion that he rather be a poor servant with that knowledge than back in the shadows with ignorance. The Allegory of the Cave has six important symbolisms that relate to the lives of many high school students. The first one is the cave, which is the society, the knowledge and costumes that most of the people consider as the absolute truth; the second is the fire, representing the knowledge that society gives to each person, which shape  many lives of scholars through their acceptance of these; the third one is the prisoners that symbolizes the students; the fourth is the shadows, that are the things that learners think they know, which are perceived through their senses; the fifth is the shackles, representing the comfort zone where undergraduates stay due to the fear of being judged; the final is the light, where they can actually find the real knowledge. These symbolisms represent to be part of many of the lives that high school students have through their three years of study, because a great amount of these undergraduates constantly accept rules or truths that others implement on them. These situations reveal one very important problem that they experience when they try to belong to a group. They take the information that group gives them (fire symbolism) and that’s what they use as reference point to other activities they face through their day. As consequence they become strange prisoners from that information that is given to them, not allowing them to come out to the light (real knowledge) and experience the real world, which is way to different and more filled up with information about the world. In some cases there are students that notice that they are slaves of information that the groups give them and they decide to leave all that information behind and experience the real world, however for many it is very hard to get accustomed to the real world and its information due to the dramatic change, which in consequence leads them back to the world of shadows. Another greek philosopher named Aristotle, who made a huge impact on western philosophy discusses on his studies the four causes that lead a person to be virtuous. These causes are the material (material of what and object is composed of), the formal (the potentiality of what it can become or work for), the efficient (tools that shape the object) and the final (its purpose). These four causes are the ones that through reason lead people to accomplish their total actuality (ultimate purpose). The four causes are deeply related to a scholar’s life, as does any other human being, which can lead them to be virtuous people through the completion of the stages, however when teenagers try to fit in a club the causes seem to be farther away because of the shape that their lives take once they commit to belong to a group. High school is about fitting in and belonging to a society, where he or she relates to the people within, nonetheless these people usually try to belong to the high and social groups, which dictate a set of  norms in order to be part of it. These rules are usually doing drugs, drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes and relations hips with the opposite gender. They usually lead the subject to an acceptable place within the group, yet these requisites lead the person to move further apart from their causes and to a virtuous life. Peer pressure assumes an important role in this case, principally because the teenager desires so bad to belong, that he or she will do anything to accomplish their goal. This situation has created polemique, because once you enter high school no person wishes to be at the bottom, without being recognized socially, which builds another wall between the subject and the final cause depending on the type of group that a person wants to belong to and how far are the ideologies of the group from the ones of the person. Van Inwagen, a metaphysician debate on how appearances tend to be deceptive and that reality stands behind all these appearances. These, disguise the reality and they do this type of â€Å"scheme† through the misleading of what people sense. Many social groups and images that photoshop has ideally formed have highly disguised the truth of perfect and ideal body. In the case of groups they show how not having parents is better (appearance), yet these people suffer of psychological problems and loneliness (reality) which they tend to hide with the amazingness of not having elderly people caring for you, leading scholars to have problems with their parents because of the attention and concern that they have for them that it is bad seen in the teen society. Another case that can relate to the point of Van inwagen of appearances being deceptive is drinking and smoking, which is seen in social high school groups to be fine and without consequences (appearances), however drinking and drugs are another way to balance their lack of attention in parenthood (reality). For photoshop they disguise these models with perfect body, teeth, hair, skin among other things when the reality is that these models just stand there and let the photographers take pictures of them, which later are incredibly edited and placed on magazines and big announcements that serve the purpose of projecting an ideal form to sell advertisements among other things. Another important situation of an undergraduate is the effort and results they tend to have at school. Many students consider high school as a social network that leads them to a happy stage of their lives by partying and skipping classes, nonetheless they forget the importance of their education when they  fa il classes, which can be occasionally improved, however the way that students deal with failure is why they cannot succeed. Plato teacher of Aristotle debates that an unexamined life is not worth living because even though people experience some discomfort or pain this is only temporary and it is worth it due to what comes next. The â€Å"temporary pain† can be seen in this case as studying more and partying less, that eventually would lead to having good grades, getting into a good college and being successful. Yet if they remain in an unexamined life of ignorance they will live a different type of pain, which will remain there for all of their lives. This last phrase of different type of pain is related to a scholar’s life when he fails classes and eventually school, leaving him without his or her studies, leading to a bad employment and misery. That is why in the Allegory of the Cave, Plato in his conversation with Glaucon mentions how the slave that was set free and comes back to the cave says that he would rather live being a poor servant of a poor master with all the knowledge that bac k in the shadows. This shows in the student’s life that if he went out to the real world and saw what he could become and the truth about it, he would not rather be an ignorant teen that only parties who remains in the shadows because he can not see what can happen if he remains the same. To conclude this essay, it has been seen the different aspects that a teenager boy or girl on high school can have and how are they related to the different authors and movie of metaphysics. These authors have one thing in common which is seeking the truth, however their methods to guide them to the goal differ. The two main authors are of greek background, Aristotle and Plato. Aristotle focuses his methods and theory on the sensible realm and later on the intelligible realm, unlike Plato who uses these concepts the other way around focusing on the world of forms or ideal world and its influence on the natural realm. It is for each person to decide the view on which they stand, which could be philosophy being a set of footnotes of Plato; Aristotle being superior than Plato, because he took Plato’s ideas and improved them; or Plato focuses on abstract ideas and Aristotle is concentrated on concrete objects and its development, changes and purposes. This views are for each person to the decide focusing mainly on undergraduates and their philosophical situations and how they wish to deal with them by either choosing one of the views or remaining in the shadows. Bibliography BIBLIOGRAPHY Cohen, Marc. The Allegory of the Cave. 11 July 2013. 12 September 2014 Cohen, S. Marc. Aristotles Metaphysics. 11 June 2012. 12 September 2014 Paul, John. 2 July 2013. 11 September 2014 . Stanford Universuty. Metaphysics. 10 September 2007. 11 September 2014 Synonims. Unknown. Notes on Alain Badiou’s Thinking the Event. 22 June 2012. 12 September 2014

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Concentric Circle Approach To Defence And Foreign Policy Politics Essay

Concentric Circle Approach To Defence And Foreign Policy Politics Essay Security perspective after Cold War has changed tremendously. Not only that state has to deal with external military aggression, it also has to go through overwhelming challenges of non-traditional security issues. Among the issues are terrorism, ethnic conflict, sea piracy, smuggling of illegal weapon and drug trafficking  [1]  . In this case, Indonesia is not an exceptional. Although Indonesia has been cautious to any action taken by any states within its geostrategic area since 1945 (after independent today), the concentration given by Indonesia government since mid-1990s is more on the non-traditional issues that impede states domestic political stability, unity, territorial integrity and thus to its sovereignty. This is partly due to the region where it is located, that is (to a certain extent) stable and less prone to the state-to-state conflict. In this case, the traditional threat of aggression from other countries is very unlikely to happen in this region  [2]  , its military preparedness has to be intact to overcome all mentioned non-traditional security issues that it is currently confront with  [3]  . For Indonesia, the dynamic shift of threat from non-taditional to traditional security may manifest themselves in the form of invasion or aggression from other countries  [4]  especially when considering the case of 9/11 terrorist attack and the reaction taken by United States and its allies in their mission on the global war on terror in Afghanistan as an instance. Concious with the challenges that impede Indonesia lately particularly when we look at terrorist Bali bombing in 2002 and J.W. Marriott bombings in 2003  [5]  , the twin-suicide bombing at the J.W Marriott and Ritz-Carlton hotels in 2009, as well as its unresolve issues of armed separatist movement imposed by Free Papua Movement (OPM)  [6]  , has made Indonesia aware that if the government did not overcome such non-traditional security issues effectively, it would cause more political, economic and social instability than what Indonesia is currently facing with. Thus, in order to overcome such situations, Indonesia through its defence and foreign policy has been used as a guideline to maintain states order as well as its national interest or national security. The question is what is Indonesias defence and foreign policy? How does Indonesia utilise its resources to overcome the traditional and the non-traditional security threat considering the challenges that it has to face especially when domestic instability is eminent. Apart from that, how does Indonesia synergise its defence and foreign policy to overcome the problem? What kind of approach that Indonesia use to preserve its own national interest? And what exactly is Indonesia national interest? By considering its security threats this paper argues that i) on one hand, Indonesia mobilises or use its armed forces to tackle the problems that occur, in which the preservation of states sovereignty and territorial integrity is its primary goal. ii) Indonesia, on the other hand utilises its foreign policy as a synergy in maintaining and achieving states national interest through different type of strategies. iii) This paper will conclude that, as in the case of Indonesia; foreign and defence policy cannot be separated especially when discussing states security perceptions and the strategy that it use to overcome it. In this case, state (Indonesia) uses its two statecrafts (state strategies) through the use of force as well as diplomacy as its major instrument in preserving and maitaining its national interest. Therefore, this paper will highlight, first, Indonesia internal and external security threats. Second, Indonesia defence policy in addition to its strategic national interest and third, this paper will focus on its foreign policy and approach taken by Indonesia in synergising its defence and foreign policy as a method of preserving and maintaing its national interest. 2.0 INDONESIA INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SECURITY THREAT As the Republic of Indonesia enters the year of 2010, and celebrates its 65th Independence Day in August of the same year, it is evident that the security concern of the state will continue to be dominated by the same issues that it faced a decade ago. In fact the major concern of Indonesian government is unlikely from external threat of aggression rather their internal or domestic political instability. It was stated in the white paper issued in 2003 when Indonesian government acknowledged for the first time on the persistence of non-traditional security issues that occurs in the country  [7]  . A glance at Indonesias security perceptions, internally; despite a relative improvement in the economic development as well as its political situation, Indonesia faces tremendous difficulty in overcoming at least three [3] key security issues or challenges: i) the threat of terrorism, ii) protracted secessionist movements, and iii) the return of communal violence. Externally, the war on terrorism both at the regional and global levels continues to place Indonesia at the centre of regional and global attention. In this case, the nature of Indonesian government responses to the problem of terrorism, in which the government is constrained with its domestics capabilities in pertaining to the communication network level and its locals sensitivity to curb terrorism within the country, is putting the Indonesian government in a state of strain particularly on its relations with the outside world; regionally ASEAN as the whole, its close neighbour Australia as well the United States. The security environment of Indonesia remains volatile since it retains independent status in 1945. In this case, the most security challenges faced by the government of Indonesia now remain the threat of terrorism  [8]  910. Being the world largest archipelago with the biggest Muslim and multicultural population in the world, Indonesia certainly has a multi-diverse complexity in maintaining order and security. In this particular context, terrorism has become the threat to the safety of the nation, even a threat to democracy and civil society  [11]  . Despite the successes of arresting and prosecuting hundreds of terrorism suspects, radical groups were still active in recruiting new members. Since the bombing of Toserba Ramayana, Jakarta on January 2nd 1999 until the twin-suicide bombing at the J.W Marriott and Ritz-Carlton hotels in 2009, terrorism threat in Indonesia has increased tremendously  [12]  . Ten years of receiving consistence terrorisation from the terrorist group, there has been a serious doubt, if not pessimism, in the country whether the government has the ability to find and deal with the impact in a swift and firm manner. The government faced a difficult task of balancing the need to crack down terrorist networks and the imperative of taking into account terrorist group activities  [13]  . Apart from terrorism, Indonesia at the same time faces major threats from armed separatist movement  [14]  . In fact, the armed separatist movements were not new to Indonesian government. As early as 1950s (during the tenure of Sukarno until today; President Bambang Yudhoyono), the primary objective given by Indonesia government are still the same which is maintaining order at the domestic level especially to the case that derived from armed separatist movements which happened in East Timor  [15]  (now Timor Leste), West Papua  [16]  (still happening), and even in Aceh  [17]  province  [18]  19. In other words, its main task is safeguarding Indonesias territorial integrity. Aside from territorial integrity comes national economic strategic interest and states sovereignty. All these interest embedded in the Preamble of the 1945 Constitution. Among others, State has to safeguard and protect the sovereignty of the state, territorial integrity of the Republic of Indon esia, the nations safety and pride, and at the same time involve actively in efforts to create world peace  [20]  . Communal conflicts that happened in Maluku, South Sulawesi (Poso), in Kalimantan (Sanggau Ledo, Sampit, Sambas) was also considered as one of the major security threat facing by Indonesia from within  [21]  . So much so, it requires serious attention from the central government. Indonesia is a heterogeneous state. With a vast number of ethnic residing in a country as well as the geographical characteristic as an island nation; makes it easy for communal conflicts to occur. The issue that triggered the conflict was mainly due to a religious (Maluku and Poso, Sulawesi) and racial (West Kalimantan) background  [22]  . In fact, to some extent it was also triggered by an intergroup exclusivity and the socio-economic gap. According to Jones  [23]  , in her report says, one of the things we see is how changing population balances among different ethnic and religious groups has led to certain kinds of tensions, often with one group feeling that it is under siege by another. The l oss caused by communal conflict is enormous; it causes waves of evacuation, tremendous suffering of people, casualties and large material loss. In fact, the biggest communal conflict is ruined national solidarity and the bond of unity as a nation. Indonesias external threat perceptions on the other hand remain shaped primarily by internal sources of instability and conflict and suspicious of involvement of foreign actors in those internal conflicts. Indonesias elite, both civilian and military, continue to express concern over the possible involvement of foreign countries not only in the regional rebellions such as Aceh and Irian Jaya (Papua) but also in the spate of terrorist attacks across in the country, especially the Bali bombings. Some Indonesians believe that there is an international conspiracy (especially by the West) to undermine Indonesias stability and security through the issue of terrorism  [24]  . Many also recent the fact the international community, especially the United States, has come to see Indonesia as a hotbed of terrorism. These sensitivities among government officials, political, community leaders, and the public at large have in turn brought about a degree of uneasiness for Indonesia in both its r elationship with neighbouring countries in the regional war on terrorism and its relations with the United States  [25]  . 3.0 INDONESIA DEFENCE POLICY AND ITS STRATEGIC NATIONAL INTEREST In analysing Indonesias defence policy and its strategic interest, this paper will highlight few important things. First, this paper will look at its defence policy, the nature of its national interest as well as its strategic interest in overcoming states security challenges. The map of Indonesia. Source: Date of Accessed: 1 October 2010. The primary legal documents bearing on defence policy are the 1945 Constitution and the Defence Act (Law No.20) of 1982  [26]  . Constituted under article 30 of the Constitution, it is stated clearly that the duty of the state government is to protect all Indonesians (citizens) in every aspect from any threat. The notion to protect Indonesias citizens, however, is part and parcel of Indonesias national interest that is; to safeguard and to protect the sovereignty of the state, the territorial integrity, the nations safety as well as its pride  [27]  . The foci of Indonesias defence and security are thus, represented in conventional term as a series of concentric cirle emanating from Jakarta. In providing a clear picture of this defence and security strategy, the main area that covers the most or hot area of Indonesias security is its land and maritime borders (strecting up to its Zone Economy Exclusive, ZEE). The second circle, on the other hand covers the area of its neighbouring countries as well as the region where it is located. In this particular context, what ever happens in the region will directly or indirectly gives impact on the security aspect of Indonesia especially when it is located at one of the most important trade sea-lane that connect the West and the East; streching from Indian Ocean to the Straits of Malacca and the South China Sea. Thus, on account of its strategic position, it is important for Indonesian Armed Forces to maintain its national jurusdiction especially when almost all countries in the world rely heavily on Indonesias stability and security as well as its self-defence capacity for its own national resilience  [28]  . In other words, the development of a strong and flexible state apparatus, political and social cohesion and a ruboust economic infrastructure which enables Indonesia to defend itself and contribute to the defence of the region. Defence Act 1982, on the other hand provides a basic provisions of the defence and security of the Republic of Indonesia. It is a notable document that mentioned the social and political functions of Indonesian Armed Forces. Lowry  [29]  stated that; The act states that national defence and security includes defence against both external and internal threats amd that these threats may be directed against national freedom, sovereignty, national unity and solidarity, the integrity of the nation and national jurisdiction, and the values of the national idealogy; Pancasila as well as the constitution. The Act also explained that the threat can be overcome by total peoples resistance within a system of total peoples defence (Sishankamrata). It was designed to marshal and mobilise the nations physical, moral and material resources. In order to attain the desired goals, Indonesia has highlghted few startegies. Among them are permanent strategic interest, urgent strategic interest and the international cooperation in defence which underlies in future strategic interest. All of these embedded in Indonesias Strategic Defence Interest  [30]  . The permanent strategic defence interest of Indonesia is the administration of defence to guard and protect the countrys sovereignty and the unityof Indonesia and the countrys honour from every threat, either from outside or from inside of the country. In order to protect all these interests, it is important to be prepared to defend the country without regard for the argument as to whether or not a concrete threat exists. In carrying out permanent defence interest, Indonesia will always maintain a love for peace, independence and sovereignty. Thus, in resolving every conflicts and dispute, Indonesias will always first put forward diplomatic efforts and the use of force wil l be mobilised if the diplomatic means fail. Therefore, the Indonesia chooses an active defensive strategy in its defences. Indonesias urgent strategic interest on the other hand is directed to overcome actual security issues, which action could undermine and distrupt indonesias sovereignty and unity. In line with this, there are few security threats that Indonesia has to overcome with. The security issues, nonetheless, are heavily concentrated on the non-traditional security issues that emerge within the country. This includes fighting and overcoming the international threat at home and abroad, overcome the disturbances of armed separatist movements, counter radicalism and solve communal conflicts, overcome international crime as well assisting the government in handling natural disaster or any humanitarian activity  [31]  . As part of the international community, Indonesias pursue its third form of direct defence strategy based on international cooperation interest. In this case, Indonesia realise that other than the use of force as part of its statecraft strategy, Indonesia is committed to create a peace and good relations with other countries especially with its neighbour, the regional context and the world based on trust and cooperation. In fact, it cannot release itself from any connection with the world in the effort to achieve its desired goals. For Indonesia, this is the best strategy that could protect the nation from any external aggression especially in a form of state-to-state war. It is ecapstulated as part of Indonesias regional resilience. As a former secretary general of the Department of Defence and Security put it: we must defend further forward by befriending our neighbours and even by possesing the same threat perceptions (Quoted in Lowry  [32]  ). Recognising the limitations of i ts resources, Indonesia thus seeks a balance of interest rather than a balance of power  [33]  . In order to fulfil the requirement in upholding states national interest, Indonesia defence policy has come out with a strategic defence in which it should ensure the accomplishment of its national interest and its international cooperation. 4.0 INDONESIA FOREIGN POLICY AND THE LINGKAGES TO ITS DEFENCE POLICY IN PRESERVING ITS NATIONAL INTEREST Although Indonesian government recognises and stressing oftenly on the need to maintain internal order or domestic political stability as well as territorial integrity as a primary objective for its defence strategy, this does not mean that other form of strategy is neglected. Indonesia, like other country in the world, pursue diplomatic statecraft as its first agenda especially at the international level. In this case, Indonesia apply active defensive approach or as what Lowry  [34]  coined as forward defence. As its defence policy, Indonesias foreign policy is also uniquely influenced by its domestic events. Indonesias foreign and defence policy has always been a reflection of the beliefs and the actions of policymakers who are influenced, in varying degrees and ways by the society and the international system in which it operates. Although Indonesia has withnessed different kind of leadership and approach that has been taken on its foreign policy, there has been no major changes being made by the Indonesian leaders except for some concentrations at the substantial issues like, the issuence of stabilising political order and combating terrorism by President Megawati and diliberating and extending economic resilience during the tenure of Abdul Rahman Awahid and B.J. Habibie. All of these could be said as the extraneous variables that has influnced Indonesias foreign policy. Over all, the domestic imperatives such as commitment on the need to stabilise domestic politics, to preserve states territorial integrity and sovereignty as well to maintain states economic development has dominantly influence Indonesia foreign policy until today. What kind of approach that has been taken is rather different from one leader to another. As mentioned ealier, Indonesia foreign policy is a synergy to Indonesias defence policy. In this case, it requires extensive participation at the regional level as well as at the global level. For instance, under the tenure of President Bambang Yudhoyono, Indonesia is currently focusing on a new foreign policy outlook claimed as securing Thousand friends and Zero Enemies  [35]  . Under this policy Indonesia is moving towards attaining and trying to emerge as a responsible power (Middle Power) in the Southeast Asia region. It is carefully articulated as to improve relations with every nation in the region through bilateral and multilateral means. This includes promoting justice and order at the international arena, better investment policy for economic development, democracy and consolidation in regional integration as well as maintaining national unity. All of these strategies are important for Indonesia as one of the method that could improve Indonesias image at the internatioal fora esecially against all allegations of human rights abuses conducted against armed separatist movements in Aceh and Papua. For that, Indonesia is pursuing an active and independent approach  [36]  37 The necessity in conducting its foreign policy in constructivist approach is to denotes the ability to turn adversary into friend and to turn friend into partner. All of these are important as to provide a conducive environement in the region for the better future development based on thrust, confidence building  [38]  . With such sitiation, all disputes and conflicts could be settle at the table of discussion through a diplomatic approach rather than aggressiveness. In this case, Indonesia will therefore not to use its forces as a method of finding solution. To prove this kind of things as important as it is, Indonesia, as of to this date, has not engaged in any military alliance with a foreign policy especially in securing its own capacity to influence world order or international relations. For that, Indonesia advocates that all Southeast Asian states develop their full economic, political and social potential while cooperating extensively with each other. This is the hope tha t could boster external aggression or challenges. At one level, this could be a security buffer for Indonesia if the region could be persuaded to act in unison to twart the incursion of hegemonic influence. However, no other nations are enthusiastic to serve as security buffer for Indonesia  [39]  . Indonesias contributions to international security remain limited and focused on the regional level, especially in the war against terrorism. Indonesia has signed a number of antiterrorism agreements with some regional states. The Bali bombings and the Marriott bombing have not persuaded Jakarta to publicly-support the involvement of external powers in regional problems in which Indonesia continues to prefer regional solutions to regional problems. Apart from that, Indonesias foreign policy goal is to emerge as a responsible power in the Southeast Asian region. It is a unique amalgamation of the two schools of thought and policy of adaptation to the changing geopolitical and geostrategic compulsions. Being the world largest archipelago with the biggest Muslim population is again trying to gain leadership position in the region through a constructive and cooperative gestures and balanced bargaining between major powers. In fact, Indonesias foreign policy is based upon a number of cherished principles that reflect the countrys sense of national identity, how it wishes to protect and pursue its national interests vis-à  -vis other countries, and the shape of the desirable world order. On 19 September 1999, President B.J. Habibie signed Act no. 37 of 1999 on Foreign Relations, which was actually the first such Act on foreign policy, signed since trigger Indonesias independence. This Act formally stipulates key principles of Indone sias foreign policy that had been practiced for most of the countrys existence. In that context, Indonesia consistently expresses the hope that the ASEAN will continue to serve as the main vehicle for regional countries to cope with security challenges in the region, especially non-traditional threats such as terrorism. During the 2003, ASEAN Summit in Bali, Indonesia obtained agreement from other ASEAN members to transform the organisation into a security community by 2020. Indonesia has also called for an increase in intra-ASEAN maritime cooperation to provide more and more security aspect of the region as well as to its own country. 5.0 CONCLUSION Being the world largest archipelago with the biggest Muslim and multicultural population, Indonesia is trying it best to play a leadership role and at the same time struggling to maintain order mainly from its domestic instability as well as external security threats. Overseeing its defence, security as well as its foreign relations has proven complex in sense considering its size, location, economic underdevelopment, geographical fragmentation and ethnic and religious diversity. However, since its Independence, Indonesian leaders have managed to manoeuvre the state and provide cohesion and national identity under a unitary state. Looking at its foreign affairs, Indonesia has become a major political force in Southeast Asia. With its power resources mainly from its population, huge area of territory, vast number of natural resources and its potential market makes it important at the international arena especially in the region of rapid economic growth. Indonesia has taken a traditional-middle power role or approach in encouraging continued US engagement in the region as a stabilising force during the current period of transition (referring to Indonesias domestic politics from guided democracy with vast amount of military involvement in the administration to civilian control). Moreover, the encouragement is also due to the fact of uncertainty especially with the rising of Chinas power in the future regional order. Nonetheless, it also need China to participate into the regional community is some form of cooperative or common security arrangement to prevent the formation of competing power blocs. Indonesia sought to change the pattern of its external relations. The pattern usually occurred in terms of partnership as well the type of activity that it involves. At home, Indonesias traditional defence strategy has been one of national self-reliance based on total peoples defence with the armed force as the core of the nations arms. However, there are some challenges that it has to overcome with. Indonesia in this case acknowledged that their major difficulties are to cope with the vast number of islands as well as with the vast number of ethnic residing in the country. All of these could be tackled through an active participation from the population to help maintain order. However, globalisation is somehow another and big challenge to Indonesia as more and more population becoming more political democratic, appreciate interdependence economic development based on open market, there is no way that it could avoid for the population to become more individualistic than ever. It has somehow deteriorating the nationalism of the population. ENDNOTES

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Distinctions Between Art and Pornography

Distinctions Between Art and Pornography Critically examine whether it is possible to distinguish convincingly between art and pornography Introduction The distinctions between art and pornography is one that the law has struggled with. There have been many attempts of defining the two by many art critics and authors. While there are indeed standard distinctions between art and pornography, there are still limitations behind these arguments. There is still an inevitable overlap between art and pornography that makes it difficult to easily distinguish between art and pornography. Classic distinctions between art and pornography Firstly, it may seem like it is possible to distinguish convincingly between art and pornography by relying on the classic distinctions. One of the main obvious differences is that pornography is explicit and objectifies people while art is subjective and relies on opinions from the viewer. This is supported by views from academics like Ann Eaton who posits that to enjoy porn, you have to objectify women (at least temporarily),[1] and one is unable to do this while simultaneously contemplating its artistic value.[2] This means that viewers of pornographic pictures will typically focus on the body parts involved in pornography while viewers of artwork will take the art piece as a whole and not to simply accept it at face value. Another classic distinction would depend on the response invoked from the viewer. If a work seems to be solely designed to arouse sexual response, then it is viewed as pornography. Art invites the viewer to appreciate the work and it is more than just a physiological response. Jerrold Levinson has mentioned that art is centrally aimed at aesthetic experience while pornography is solely aimed at sexual arousal.[3] He feels that the two are incompatible. In other words, the different response invoked by the viewer is what determines whether something is art or pornography. People generally perceive art as possessing an element of beauty and pornography as one that is non-aesthetic. Freud has once mentioned that ‘the genitals themselves, the sight of which is always exciting, are hardly ever regarded as beautiful.’[4] Critics like Roger Scruton has also said ‘the pornographic image is like a magic wand that turns subjects into objects, people into things – and thereby disenchants them, destroying the source of their beauty.’[5] George P. Elliot has defined pornography as ‘the representation of directly or indirectly erotic arts with an intrusive vividness which offends decency without aesthetic justification.’[6] This shows how some art critics feel strongly about pornography being strictly non-aesthetic as compared to art where its beauty is to be appreciated. Lynda Nead sees art as a sign of ‘cleanliness and licit morality’, where on the other hand pornography ‘symbolizes filth and the i llicit’.[7] She is of the strong opinion that art reflects high social values where pornography reflects the other spectrum of the society which is one that is rotten. Hans Mae is of the similar view of Lynda Nead as he mentions that ‘art is concerned with beauty, while pornography is non-aesthetic and â€Å"smutty†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢. [8] This shows how pornography is stereotypically viewed as non-aesthetic pleasing and this is distinguished when comparing the beauty of art. Another difference between them is that there is the possibility of contemplation when looking at art and this is absent when viewing pornography. Schopenhauer has said that nudes prevent aesthetic contemplation as it inevitably excites lust and thus runs counter to the proper goals of art like aesthetic appreciation.[9] Kenneth Clark has mentioned to the Lord Longford committee on pornography that ‘art exists in the realm of contemplating, and is bound by some sort of imaginative transposition. The moment art becomes an incentive to action it loses its true character.’[10] This means that art requires one to enter the sphere of contemplation, if this is not possible, a subject cannot be deemed as art. Limitations of these classic distinctions However, while these classic distinctions may assist one in distinguishing between art and pornography, they are not without flaws. One can argue that there are inherent flaws in the arguments of the classic distinctions. It may be possible to objectify people while thinking about whether it is art simultaneously. An example of this would be the artwork â€Å"Arsewoman in Wonderland† by Fiona Banner. The gallery blurb states that Banner has ‘used pornographic film to explore sexuality and the extreme limits of written communication’.[11] This is one way where women are objectified and one can think about whether it is art at the same time. Ultimately, the age old adage where beauty is in the eye of the beholder can be applied to distinguishing art and pornography in terms of aesthetics. What could be considered as aesthetic pleasing to one may not be viewed as aesthetic pleasing to another. An example of this is the replica of Marcel Duchamp’s â€Å"Fountain† which consists of a standard urinal that is laid flat on its back. This certainly may not be viewed as aesthetically pleasing to some but it remains as one of his most famous artworks. This shows that this certain distinction may not always be effective in distinguishing the two. Other factors like culture play an important role in limiting or expanding the definition of both art and pornography. Previously, in September 2009, a photograph of 10 year old actress Brooke Shields, that consisted of her fully made up and naked was removed from Tate Modern’s exhibition at the time called â€Å"Pop Life†. However, now Art exhibitions like the Shunga exhibition[12] in the British Museum in 2014 portrays pornographic art pictures done by Japanese artists show how modern culture is becoming more accepting and liberal, thus expanding the informal definition of pornography. This shows how culture has evolved over the years in line with modern values and changes in perception. This means that it is challenging for there to be a fixed definition of pornography globally and the ever changing global culture makes it difficult to define ‘pornographic content’ in society. [13] The problem with art is that it is sometimes not seen as great until it i s looked at decades in advance. If art is classified as pornography immediately on its creation as is censored, one might not know how great art is. With the lack of a definition, it is inevitable that pornography and art inherently overlap in certain aspects. Instances where art and pornography inherently overlap Furthermore, while the distinctions may help to clarify the inherent differences between certain examples of art and pornography, it does not serve to show that pornography and art are fundamentally incompatible. The arguments set forth by the aforementioned academics do not show that art and pornography are mutually exclusive. Many artworks fall in the overlap between art and pornography. There are many works of pornography that possess features which supposedly disqualify pornography from the realm of art. If we use these classic distinctions exclusively, many art works may fall on the side of pornography. An example of a middle ground of art and pornography is pornographic art. This shows how the overlap of art and pornography is not necessarily a bad thing. Without this overlap. Many major works of art and literature may be lost due to its inability to be classified as art. For example, Lucian Fred’s highly explicit portraits of his nude subjects may be seen as pornography, but they are at the same time highly expressive.[14] Many of Rodein’s pornographic nude drawings like Hands on Her Sex or Naked Woman with Legs Apart which show drawings of female nudes masturbating has additional elements of it which can be perceived as expressive. In the case of literature, the novel Vox by Nicholson Baker has a pornographic stance but the intended sexual arousal gleaned from the reader is further enhanced by the literary features of the novel. This is an example of a novel that aims to be appreciated as pornographic art. [15] The sexual writing of Anais Nin emphasises strongly on sexual arousal but this is simultaneously done in order to bring to the attention of the reader her active consciousness and desires and her varying responses to certain people, feeling, and situations. [16] If we were to classify these examples as pornography, they would not be given the credit they deserve as great literary and art works. However, the issue of pornographic art has been highly contested by critics. Jerrold Levinson feels that pornography can never be classified as art of any kind. He uses the aforementioned example of Vox By Nicholson Baker and states that it only mimics and resembles pornography, and it is not pornography in its true form. He goes on to mention that he does not think that classifying pornography as art is a good idea as it ‘leaves no place for the category of erotic art as distinct from pornography’.[17] He feels the furthest one can go in relation to pornographic art is simply art that has a pornographic feature or look, pornographic art should not have a category of its own. This is not to say that there is no place for pornography in art. Tate Britain’s director, Stephen Deuchar has mentioned before that ‘much art is not comfortable’[18] which further proves that perhaps pornography can support art in the sense that it adds to the range and content of art. Many believe that the best new art allegedly infringes rules. Pornography can be used to invigorate more conventional art or question art’s susceptive work. Pornography can also serve to suggest transgression when art flies too safely to its own parameters. On the other hand, there are also disadvantages to pornography entering the artistic realm. Pornography can act as an assault and crush elevated art into being more ordinary. People often like art as it invokes reality, one can argue that visual pornography is often styled in a certain way that does not usually represent the greater part of one’s experience. Strict offences of pornography Perhaps one of the reasons why it is important to be able to distinguish effectively between pornography and art is that there are strict offences relating to pornography. Under the section 48 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003[19], it is an offence to cause or invite child prostitution or pornography. Child pornography is defined as ‘any representation of a child engaged in real or simulated explicit sexual activities or any representation of the sexual parts of a child for primarily sexual purposes’ (Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 2002)[20]. There have been high profile police investigations like Operation Ore that led to the investigation of thousands of people in relation to possession of child pornography and downloading and making child pornography on the internet.[21] The operation was one of a very large magnitude. This reflects how serious and widespread the offences relating to child pornography is. Hence, there is a need to distin guish between pornography and art in order for child pornographic offences to be rightly convicted. Another offence under pornography is the possession of extreme pornographic images under section 63 of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008[22]. Extreme pornography is low on morality and context, proscribing both bestiality and necrophilia. The case that was arguably the expedient basis for the need for this legislation involved Jane Longhurst[23] who was asphyxiated by Graham Coutts in 2003 in a ‘sex game’ that he claimed went wrong. Coutts’ habitual use of pornographic internet sites that featured woman in sexual activities involving death and strangulation was seen as attributing to his perverted view in relation to sexual acts. These serious crimes involving pornography shows that the law views it as a strict matter and hence it can be argued that it is important for pornography and art to be distinguished in order for these offences to be regulated effectively. Inevitably, the different attempts of defining pornography brings to mind certain legal descriptions of obscenity There has been varying attempts of defining pornography many numerous art critics. Authors like Fred Berger has mentioned that he thinks pornography involves work ‘which explicitly depicts sexual activity or arousal in a manner having little or no artistic or literary value’.[24] A definition like this inevitably reminds one of certain legal descriptions of obscenity. For example, the Miller test in the USA, fleshed out in Miller v California[25] states that for something to be obscene it has to be found appealing to the prurient interest, depicts sexual conduct and taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value. Roth[26] suggested that all art should be saved if it had redeeming qualities. The Miller test is problematic to the definition of pornography as it seems to merge both the idea of pornography and obscenity as one. Critics like John Huer (Art, Beauty, and Pornography) have raised the idea that pornography seems to be a subset o f obscenity, as the category of obscenity is wider as it includes many non-sexual instances. This once again reiterates the fact that the lack of a proper definition for pornography creates certain obstacles in obscenity law. Conclusion In conclusion, while it may seem like a somewhat simple task to effectively distinguish between art and pornography, one will soon realise it is not as easy as it seems due to the inevitable overlap of art and pornography and the limitations of the arguments. The current lack of definition for pornography has problems as mentioned previously. Perhaps with a possible definition of pornography in the future, art and pornography will be able to be distinguished with more ease. [1] A. W. Eaton. ‘A Sensible Antiporn Feminism’ Ethics, Vol 117, No.4, Symposium on Education and Equality (July 2007) [2] Tabatha Leggett. ‘Can pornography be art?’ (New Statesman) [3] Jerrold Levinson. ‘Erotic Art and Pornographic Pictures’ Philosophy and Literature, Volume 29, Number 1, April 2005 (The Johns Hopkins University Press) pp 229-230 [4] Sigmund Freud. Civilization and its Discontents (Standard Edition, Volume 21). London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1961 pp 83 [5] Roger Scruton. Beauty. (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2009) [6] Elliott, George P. ‘Against Pornography.’ Perspectives on Pornography. Ed. Douglas Hughes. New York: St Martin’s  Press, 1970. Pp 74-5 [7] Lynda Nead. The Female Nude: Pornography, Art and Sexuality, Signs, Vol.15, No.2 (Winter, 1990) (The University of Chicago Press) pp 325 [8] Hans Mae. Drawing the Line: Art vs Pornography, Philosophy Compass (2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd) pp 386 [9] Arthur Schopenhaur. The World as Will and Representation. 1 vol. Trans. E.F. J. Payne. New York: Dover, 1965 pp 207-8 [10] Lord Longford. Pornography: the Longford Report (London: Coronet, 1972) 99-100 [11] Tate Britain. Turner Prize 2002: Shortlisted artists, Fiona Banner [12]The British Museum. Shunga: sex and humour in Japanese art, 1600-1900 [13] Yaman Akdeniz. The Regulation of Pornography and Child Pornography on the Internet (Journal of Information, Law and Technology 1997 (1)) [14] Matthew Kieran. Pornographic Art, Philosopy and Literature, Volune 25, Number 1, April 2001 (The Johns Hopkins University Press) pp 35 [15] Matthew Kieran. Pornographic Art, Philosopy and Literature, Volune 25, Number 1, April 2001 (The Johns Hopkins University Press) pp 44 [16] Matthew Kieran. Pornographic Art, Philosopy and Literature, Volune 25, Number 1, April 2001 (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 37 [17] Jerrold Levinson. ‘Erotic Art and Pornographic Pictures’ Philosophy and Literature, Volume 29, Number 1, April 2005 (The Johns Hopkins University Press) pp 234 [18] Nigel Reynolds. ‘Turner Prize exhibition makes art a dirty word’ (The Telegraph 2002) [19] Section 48 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 [20] United Nations Human Rights. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography [21] John Carr. ‘A force to be reckoned with’ (The Guardian 2002) [22] Section 63 Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 [23] R v Coutts (Graham) (Costs) [2007] 6 Costs L.R. 878 [24] Berger, Fred, ‘Pornography, Sex and Censorship.’ Social theory and Practice 4 (1977) pp 184 [25] Miller v California (1973) 413 U.S. 15 [26] Roth v United States (1957) 354 U.S. 476

Monday, August 19, 2019

To Sir with Love: discourses, positions and relationships :: To Sir, with Love Essays

Research Paper Identify and discuss professional issues in education evident in a film or a piece of young people’s literature in which a teacher plays a fairly cental role. This essay will critically analyse the discourses, positions and relationships, as well as certain individuals habitus’ (after Bourdieu and Wacquant, 1992, cited in Gale & Densmore, 2000), which influence the classroom of Mark Thackeray (Sidney Potier) in the film To Sir with Love (Clavell, 1966). Via this analysis, I argue that the film portrays a simplistic, commercial palatable rather than a realistic image of the challenges of teaching, leading the viewer to a distorted perception of the implications of the various discourses employed. In order to clarify this point, I compare several incidents depicted in the film, with the same incidents as they are described in the autobiographical book by E.R. Braithwaite(Braithwaite, 1959), upon which the film is based. In doing so, I will evaluate the pedagogy of the films teacher (Thackeray) against the standards set for graduates and teachers respectively by the Queensland Board of Teacher Registration (hereafter BTR) and Education Queensland (hereafter EQ). Identifying the faulty conclusions which an uncritical viewing of the film may lead to, with regard to the availability of equal opportunity and social justice, I will make specific recommendations for reconstructed teaching practice, drawing on literature on social justice and democratic schooling. The film To Sir, with Love (hereafter ‘the film’), centres around three interlinked individualist assumptions: that social and economic advancement is sure if one tries hard enough (meritocracy), that race and class are no barrier to social and economic advancement (‘equal playing-field’), and that innate talent rather than learnt skill, plays the most crucial role in a person’s success (giftedness). These will be referred to in turn below. In contrast to this individualist stance, E.R.Braithwaite describes early in his book To Sir, With Love (hereafter ‘the book’) how his race had mitigated against his acquiring an engineering position for several years, despite excellent qualifications. He reacts to these difficulties by presenting his students with many examples of the interdependency of humanity: the brotherhood of Man. In the film, Mark Thackeray too, continues to apply for engineering positions while teaching at North Quay Secondary.. Only at the end of the film is he finally offered the lowly post of ‘Third Assistant Engineer’ by a firm outside of London, despite his ‘astounding qualifications’, but paradoxically it seems this event is meant to emphasise the recurrent theme of the cinematic retelling of this story: that ‘Anything’ is possible with enough persistence and effort.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Comparing Middletons A Chaste Maid in Cheapside and Beaumonts Knight

Upturning Social Tradition in Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside and Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle Satirical dramatic works from early seventeenth-century England provide invaluable information about the society that spawned them through their comical and critical insights. Recurring themes from these works enhance one's knowledge of the culture in which they first appeared. The ascension of the lower and middle classes into social prestige and nobility emerges among the most prevalent dramatic themes of the time. Capitalizing upon the subsequent social confusion, seventeenth-century playwrights convey the uncertainty of whether to follow the dictum of flagging traditions or to purchase a higher place in society. To understand the nuances of how social change affected England, one needs only to glance at Thomas Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside, which illustrates the struggle of the English aristocracy to survive as lower-born citizens triumphantly rise into its ranks. A Chaste Maid in Cheapside's sister drama, Francis Beaumont's The Knight of the Burning Pestle, also depicts this situation in England despite its differing plot and structure. Moreover, both plays feature similar resolutions that subtly contribute to the aura of social confusion. To emphasize the prevalence of upward mobility, Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside and Beaumont's The Knight of the Burning Pestle feature women who overcome sexually-motivated male suitors by feigning death, an action that symbolically exemplifies the quavering social boundaries and the diminishing... ...h works. One inconspicuous ripple of the numerous social shock waves appears as women overcome their insolent suitors by feigning death: a figurative upheaval of orthodox social values. In addition, the unfulfilled eroticism of the suitors suggests the future deterioration of their belief that they must marry a woman for propagation and not for love. After the women escape subjection to this lifestyle by faking their deaths, the consequences of their resurrection demonstrate the inconstancy of cultural certainties in their society. Works Cited Beaumont, Francis. The Knight of the Burning Pestle. Ed. John Doebler. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1967. Middleton, Thomas. A Chaste Maid in Cheapside. Ed. Alan Brissenden. New York: WW Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.

The Effects of the Atomic Bomb Essay -- Essays Papers

The Effects of the Atomic Bomb Some regard the atomic bomb as â€Å"the thank God for the atom bomb†. This places God on the U.S. side and regards the bombs as our saving grace. This bomb forced the Japanese to surrender which in turn proved the U.S. to be the heroes who saved the American’s lives.1 The Americans intended on ending the war but did not expect to end it with such a large number of casualties. The results of the atomic bomb and how it effected the Japanese people both emotionally and physically will be addressed. â€Å"The bombs marked both an end and a beginning—the end of an appalling global conflagration in which more than 50 million people were killed and the beginning of the nuclear arms race and a new world in which security was forever a step away and enormous resources had to be diverted to military pursuits†.2 They planned to invade Kyusha in the South on November 1st, and Tokyo and the Kanto area in Honshu in March of 1946. There was a long road ahead of them so the sooner the war ended, the better. But this was no excuse for the U.S. to kill millions of people.3 â€Å"In Japan, as might be expected, popular memory of the atomic bombs tend to begin where the American narratives leave off†¦Rubble everywhere. A silent, shattered cityscape. In this regard, the heroic narrative differs little from a Hollywood script†.4 Today we have the Smithsonian Institution that represents the trauma that many of the people today do not have imprinted in their memory. This is a way for all people, who were both present and not present, to pay their respects to the participants and the victims in World War II.5 In creating the Smithsonian, the Americans initially wanted to reflect deeply upon the occurrences by design... ... the War in Asia,† The Journal of American History 82 (1995): 1124. - Ernest Hook, â€Å"The Exclusion of Minor Malformations in the Study of Mutation in the Offspring of Survivor of Atomic Bomb: Methodological, Not Sociopolitical, Rationale,† Journal of the History of Biology 30 (1997): 239-242. - Kenzaburo Oe, Hiroshima Notes, trans. David L. Swain and Toshi Yonezawa (New York: Grove, 1996). - Toyofumi Ogura Letters From the End of the World: A Firsthand Account of the Bombing of Hiroshima trans. Kisaburo Murakami and Sigeru Figil (New York: Kodansha International, 1982). - â€Å"Physical Damages Caused by the Nagasaki Atomic Bombing,† (28 Feb. 2000). - Report of the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack (New York, 1972).

Saturday, August 17, 2019

A Marketing Plan for The London Aquarium

This document outlines a Marketing Plan for the London Aquarium. The latter is a suitable choice for such an exercise, as it has significant untapped potential as a tourist attraction in the highly competitive environment of our famous metropolis. The Marketing Plan surveys the environment, and tries to bring all seven elements of the Marketing Mix to bear on strategy for achievement of specified objectives. The website of the London Aquarium serves as the primary source of information for this Marketing Plan. The Environment London has been a leading metropolis of the world for centuries. Its stature as the seat of the British Monarchy and of the Government is enhanced by leading positions in the worlds of finance, international trade, and tourism. The latter is most relevant for the London Aquarium, which is the object of this exercise. The vast numbers of people from all parts of the world, who visit London as tourists every year, are the most important opportunity available for the London Aquarium. The city also attracts significant numbers of domestic tourists. Future prospects are bright as London’s selection for the Olympics augurs well for a steady and growing inflow of tourist traffic. Adverse events in July 2005 have raised questions of security in London. However, city authorities and the national Government have taken a number of effective steps to contain the threat. There are many other cities in various countries that compete with London for tourist revenues and traffic. They probably pose a more business-like threat to the popularity of London as a tourist destination. The London Aquarium does not have the rich historical background of some better-known tourist attractions in the city. Neither does it have the devoted following of some of the most famous annual sports events that are held here. The London Aquarium is privately owned, and therefore subject to more severe requirements in terms of cash flows and the returns it must generate on investment. These are a few weaknesses from which it suffers, relative to other tourist attractions in London. The Aquarium has important advantages as well: the romance of aquatic life attracts virtually everyone. Diverse animal forms can attract more than one visit by each person. Local residents are also potential customers, apart from tourists. The London Aquarium has a convenient location, and is relatively easy to reach from any part of the metropolis. Objectives The Objectives of the Marketing Plan that the London Aquarium may like to consider are: 1.   Ã‚  Ã‚   To register an annual increase in the number of visitors which is not less than the change in tourist arrivals in the metropolis 2.   Ã‚  Ã‚   To increase the number of revenue lines by offering new services to visitors. 3.   Ã‚  Ã‚   To increase the awareness about the Aquarium in the public eye 4.   Ã‚  Ã‚   To improve visitor satisfaction and to respond positively to feedback and complaints 5.   Ã‚  Ã‚   To build further on the quality and diversity of aquatic forms of life in the collection of the Aquarium Strategy How can the London Aquarium use its strengths and the opportunities of the tourist market to achieve the Objectives stated above? One possible approach would be to improve the Interactive Marketing experience. There should be incentives for past visitors to record their experiences and for potential visitors to visit the Aquarium at the next opportunity. This interactive strategy can find applications in all seven elements of the marketing mix. Product Responses from visitors on the Internets lament that the London Aquarium does not offer shows. The Aquarium website does mention educational activities, group facilities, and hire of the site for private functions. The Aquarium could open its Animal Husbandry Department to the public, install digital kiosks that provide information on the exhibits and conduct seminars and workshops throughout the peak tourist season. Overall, there is scope for the Aquarium to shift focus from the tangible elements of its product, to enhancing visitor experience. Visitors should be able to stay in touch with the Aquarium: the website should provide electronic newsletters and sponsor web logs. Internet sites show that some visitors miss marine mammals at the London Aquarium. The management should consider this concrete feedback on technical grounds. Video feeds can serve as an alternative if space constraints prevent the Aquarium from keeping aquatic mammals. Promotion The London Aquarium needs to do more to spread awareness of its charms. It can copy the Euro rail example and use the international network of Travel Agents to make tickets to the site widely available. It would help if Tour Operators could have incentives to bring their clients to the Aquarium. Heathrow, Gatwick and hotels can all help to remind arriving visitors to include the Aquarium in their itineraries. Most tourists would sample fish and chips during their trips: this is another innovative medium to use to remind people to drop in at the Aquarium. Feeds from the live web cameras should be on display at or near key transit points such as Oxford Circus and King’s Cross. Such displays would help at visa offices worldwide. Big Ben and other ‘celebrity’ attractions near the Aquarium can serve as magnets to bring visitors to the Aquarium in droves. The promotion element always requires a mass media element. Television and the print media have influential roles in determining how people spend leisure time in London. The Aquarium could arrange for media coverage of its educational activities, and offer feeds from its live cameras. The promotion element should include the domestic and resident segments, apart from foreign tourists. The Aquarium can make a concerted attempt to draw in crowds from people who visit London from other parts of Great Britain, as well as from the large metropolitan population that is always on the lookout for new diversions. There is tremendous scope for the London Aquarium to promote its many attractions more extensively and persuasively. This is the single most important element on which the Aquarium can concentrate for short-term gains in the number of visitors. Price It should not cost almost $10 for a child to visit the Aquarium. The family price of $50 probably keeps many people away. The Aquarium should consider staying open beyond 6 pm in summer and aim for drastic volume growth. Pricing for large groups and for children needs review. The Aquarium can expand on its offerings of mementos to build a full-fledged retail outlet, as well as to provide for catering. It should not count on ticket sales alone for revenue. Place The basement of the County Hall is not enough for the London Aquarium to compete to its full potential. It should consider awarding franchises for independent operators to offer aquatic exhibits, using the London Aquarium’s goodwill and expertise. The Aquarium has a wealth of knowledge on habitats. It also has unparalleled genetic resources. Many services and institutions in London that depend on tourism, can spread their overheads better by offering displays, exhibits and shows, under the London Aquarium umbrella. The aspect of ticket sales covered under the promotion element earlier in this document has implications for distributions as well. Distribution, as with promotion, has high scope to improve the Aquarium’s volume of business. It can also change the nature of the enterprise, keeping the possibilities of high technology in view. The Aquarium can also benchmark its practices against famous hotel and food chains, and excel in franchise management. Such an approach will help the Aquarium leap over space constraints at its present location. People It may be that the London Aquarium depends mostly on biologists to run the enterprise. It will be useful to recruit or to outsource Services Marketing expertise. The Aquarium may also wish to engage people trained in Interactive Marketing, to provide information to visitors and to ensure that they all enjoy their visits. Operations should be seen from a marketing standpoint and not merely in technical grounds. Process Visits to the Aquarium, educational programs, private events, live web cameras, and the website are the main points of interaction between the institution and the international public. Each of these types of transactions can do with the benefit of process analysis, to strengthen Internal Marketing. Employees will need both material resources as well as emotional support to make a success of the new strategy. The process element can ensure that the Aquarium arranges for such provisions comprehensively and affordably. Physical evidence The indoor location of the Aquarium is a constraint in terms of physical evidence. The Aquarium should try to build networks with the Zoo, Botanical Gardens, and authorities responsible for the Thames, to use outdoor locations and thereby improve the physical evidence element. This matter has also been discussed under the distribution element. Conclusions The vast size of the London market for tourism leaves scope for the London Aquarium to review its marketing strategies and to plan for a bigger future. It has excellent material resources in terms of specimens and expertise. The Aquarium has kept abreast of cutting-edge digital technology, with a colorful and informative website, and with live web cameras. It can now upgrade and coordinate all seven elements of the marketing mix to provide an enriched and highly responsive experience for customers. The Aquarium should develop a Service Mission to enthuse its staff. All personnel should commit to the Marketing Plan Objectives. A pervasive determination to provide visitors with superior experiences, and to compete with other London attractions, will make a grand success of the new strategy. Works Cited About us, The London Aquarium, not dated, retrieved November 2005: <>